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Holistic approach to catchment management, conservation and recuperation of freshwaters. Case Study

IWRA World Water Congress 2017 - Cancun Mexico
5. Water ecosystems and physical regimes
Author(s): Rebeca González-Villela
Luis A. Bravo-Inclán
Marco A. Mijangos-Carro
Jorge Izurieta-Dávila
Ana Cecilia Tomasini Ortiz
Gabriela Mantilla-Morales Rebeca González-Villela
Instituto Mexicano de Tecnología del Agua
rebeca_gonzalez@tlaloc.imta.mx
Luis A. Bravo-Inclán
Instituto Mexicano de Tecnología del Agua
lubravo@tlaloc.imta.mx
Marco A. Mijangos-Carro
Instituto Mexicano de Tecnología del Agua
mijangos@tlaloc.imta.mx
Jorge Izurieta-Dávila
Instituto Mexicano de Tecnología del Agua
izurieta@tlaloc.imta.mx
Ana Cecilia Tomasini Ortiz
Instituto Mexicano de Tecnología del Agua
atomasini@tlaloc.imta.mx
Gabriela Mantilla-Morales
Instituto Mexicano de Tecnología del Agua
mantilla@tlaloc.imta.mx
Alfonso Banderas-Tarabay
Instituto Mexicano de Tecnología del Agua
abanderas@tlaloc.imta.mx
Javier Sánchez-Chávez
Instituto Mexicano de Tecnología del Agua
jjsanche@tlaloc.imta.mx
Pedro Rivera Ruiz
Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua
prr.imta@tlaloc.imta.mx


Keyword(s): Water quality, ecosistemic analysis, strategic plans.
Article: Oral:

Abstract

A Multidisciplinary methodology that describes the watershed management of the Laguna de Tuxpan through the climate, topography, geology, soil, vegetation and land use through GIS. The topography showed a maximum altitude of 1731 m. The bathymetry at a height of 749.57 m, indicating a capacity of 18.89 Mm3, an area of 4.1 Mm2 and a maximum depth of 7.86 m. The physicochemical and environmental parameters of 26 sampling sites in the watersheds of the Tuxpan lagoon and Tomatal river, show the generation of 107.01 kg of nitrogen per year, of which 24.54 kg per year are by point sources (22.93%) and 82.41 kg annually are by diffuse sources (77.07%). The quantification of sediment production, indicate that the basin of Tomatal river produces 18.7 tonnes of sediment on the regions of average sloping, this equates to a lost of 7.45 t ha-1 on average throughout the basin. The physicochemical analysis, transparency and chlorophyll-a in the surface and bottom in the season rainy and dry indicate that the water quality is within the maximum permissible limits for the development of aquatic life of Flora and fauna. By the physicochemical characteristics, the lake is classified as warm water body and tropical shallow, with a holomíctic blend, characterizing it as a water body mesotrophic - eutrophic, with tendency to eutrophication through plankton community. The pollution and toxicity by Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna, Selenastrum capricornutum y Microcistina was not present in the lake.  However, the presence of six types of phthalates, plus the incidence of herbicide atrazine in the lake, point out as source of pollution to the trash of the area and agricultural activity. The wastewater discharges of the river and shore of the lake shown a contamination by the presence of fecal coliform and total suspended solids of natural origin from the watershed from Tuxpan lagoon and the Tomatal river. Therefore, is proposed  a strategic plan with objectives, activities, cost and a list of governmental organizations, ONG's, universities, that could give assistance and  economic recourses to support the plans recuperation of the most sites degraded in the watersheds, with respect to:1) sites with farming more intense, 2) a program of promotion and adoption of conservation practices for hillside land, 3) construction of little dams within channels for the control sediment and runoff infiltration to help the recharge the aquifer, 4) the river corridor recovery through of reforestation, and 5) control of less polluting chemicals, 6) reorganization of touristic activities 7) control invasive species in the lake, 8) reorganization of fishers activities, 9) programs for social participation to conduce better practice of the water urban residuals.

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