Present the results of studies of the hydrological characteristics of the main tributaries of the Vakhsh river - Surkhob, Obikhingou and meteorological conditions of the river basins. It was found that for the period 1932-2012 the water discharge dinamics in main tributaries of the Vakhsh river have increasing character. For monitoring of meteorological parameters of the river basins were used a data of meteorological stations Lyakhsh, Tavildara and Garm for the periods 1960-2012. The trend of changes of the precipitation in the basins of tributaries of the Vakhsh river has a decreasing character at increasing trend of average temperatures. The hydrograph of rivers - tributaries of the Vakhsh river found two extreme corresponding to May-June and August-September months of the year, respectively. It is suggested that they are associated with the contribution of spring rainfall and the melting of the glaciers, respectively. The Zeravshan glacier has significant reduction in volume (more than 2 km3) according to the Hydrometeorology Agency of the Republic of Tajikistan for the period of 1927-1991 and is expected further degradation to 30-35% by 2050 year. For monitoring of meteorologycal conditions of the area of Zeravshan glacier location was carried out the study of temperature change for the periods 1931-1961 and 1981-2011 years. it was found that the period 1931-1961 characterized by a more stable temperature value and it was observed a significant increase since 1981. Corresponing to the period of 1931-1961 the changing of the Zeravshan river's water flow also has a decreasing character. The calculations show that the average annual volume of runoff from 6,08 km3 for the period 1931-1961 is reduced to 5.36 km3 in the period 1981-2011 year. Similar measurements were also held for a tributary of the Zeravshan River Yagnob and it was found that the difference of mean annual discharge between periods 1931-1961 and 1981-2011 is not significant and is not more than 2%. It was found that in the period 1931-1961 observed a complete mismatch between the results of the meteorologycal observations and degradation of glacier Zeravshan.