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Governance of water resources in the Highlands of Jalisco, Mexico: the case of the microwatershed of Jihute in the municipality of Tepatitlán de Morelos

IWRA World Water Congress 2017 - Cancun Mexico
4. Water policy and governance
Author(s): Aldo Castañeda
Hugo Flores
Rogelio Martinez

Aldo Castañeda
Universidad de Guadalajara
aldocasta@hotmail.com
Hugo Flores
INIFAP
Rogelio Martinez
Universidad de Guadalajara


Keyword(s): Governance, Water resources, Highlands of Jalisco, Tepatitlan México.
Article:

Abstract

Local management of microwatersheds and especially water bodies, is an option for the management of natural resources as joint bio-physical and socio-cultural elements, as included in the river basin itself.

The purpose of this paper is the study of local customs and handling of sources of water supply, by users of the microwatershed of "Jihuite" to the dynamic pressure of Tepatitlán city, in order to identify both the problems in the short and medium term, as the processes of local governance of water, caused mainly by; changes in land use, population growth and agricultural and industrial development of the region in the last 25 years.

The purpose of this paper is to study the local management of the sources of water supply, by users of the microwatershed of "Jihuite" to the dynamic pressure of Tepatitlán city, in order to identify both the problem in the short and medium term, as the processes of local governance of water, caused mainly by; changes in land use, population growth and livestock and industrial development of the region in the last 25 years.

Starting from the basic elements that make up the microwatershed and socio-demographic characteristics of its population characteristics, current conditions of availability and quality of water for municipal public service, as well as the perceptions and needs of different stakeholders are identified, complementing the information quantitative with qualitative tools such as semi-structured interviews and surveys, to meet the needs and perceptions of the different actors involved, from the conceptual approach of cultural ecology and by the basic principles of the local water management by watersheds and the analytic framework of governance.

The results show: some strategic actors with resources and power enough to influence decision-making, few management areas where they overlap actors and commitments are made, the water rates are variable, standing out in the city of Tepatitlán have to 25% subsidy, social perceptions highlights the public concern for the quality and supply of drinking water, as well as the risks to human health by discharges of untreated wastewater, from wastewater houses, livestock farms and industries to sources of supply microwatershed.

Likewise, there are the normative basis for social participation, however locally this is very limited, on the other hand there are the technical and legal feasibility for the installation of devices and mechanisms for managing payment for environmental services; water recharge areas, environmental damage and environmental contingency caused by third parties, but these still we are properly implemented.

In the last 30 years water management in Mexico has submitted changes from centralist models, to political strategies based mainly on the possible participation of society, this model of water governance in Mexico, has been influenced by the pattern of international politics where it is intended that water management is a participatory approach, however in this municipalization transition without planning and support is observed, although it is noteworthy that in recent years the state water commissions have acted as a counterweight that could facilitate decentralization of decisions and resource management, while providing technical, economic and administrative support to municipalities.

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