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Global Climate Change a Challenge for the Coastal Mangrove Ecosystems in Bangladesh

Congress: 2008
Author(s):
Shafi Noor Islam PhD Student Albrecht Ganauck Professor Dr. Dept. of Ecosystems and environmental Informatics, International Study Course Environmental and Resource Management, Brandenburg Univesity of Technogy at Cottbus. P.O.Box. 101344, D-03013 C

Keyword(s): Global climate, Sea level rise, Inundation, Mangrove Ecosystems
AbstractThe global warming and climate change is a new threat for the coastal area of Bangladesh. Global warming and sea level rise and vulnerability of coastal wetland ecosystem are a new additional factor determines the long term management strategy for dealing with the mangrove wetland issue. A predicted sea level rise, accelerated by global warming will cause a further ‘Squeezing’ of the natural tidal land. In Bangladesh case it has been projected by IPCC and MoEF that 3 mm / year sea level rise which will occurs before 2030 and 2,500 km² land (2 %) will be inundated. In the Sundarbans case, sea level rise would result in saline water moving further into the delta which would be the major threat for mangrove and coastal wetland ecosystems in Bangladesh. The fate of the Sundarbans with different sea level rise the potential impacts on Sundarbans if 10 cm SLR will inundate 15% of the Sundarbans with 25 cm SLR will inundate 40% of the Sundarbans and with 1m SLR inundate 60% of the Sundarbans and with 1.5 m SLR about 17 million (15 %) of the population will be affected and with have to be displaced or homeless, whereas 22,000 km² (16 %) land will permanently be inundated, the sea shore lines erosion can be reduced to minus 12% to minus 22 % and cyclone intensity will rise from 10 % to 25 %, as a result, reduction of mangrove areas will increase from 50-75 %. Besides these more environmental problems will arise in the coastal belt such as; Water pollution and scarcity, soil degradation, deforestation, solid and hazardous wastes, loss of bio-diversity which will create a lot of problems for human habitation in the south western coast. In such situation it will further create an unstable agricultural crop production and food insecurity in the coastal region. The lack of knowledge, awareness and seriousness of the immense problems that are facing the country in the immediate future is most striking. Therefore climate awareness education and applied training and research should be initiated in order to change the attitude of the people and the government. It is necessary to develop technically feasible, low cost, locally available affordable and appropriate devices to live with water related extremes. The global climate change and environmental problems are both local and global in nature and have to be tackled collectively by the community. The paper has been prepared based on primary and secondary data sources. The objective of this paper is to understand concerning global climate and its impacts in the coastal area in Bangladesh. GIS application to visualize and analyze of environmental data that would be the appropriate tool for making a long-term planning for the coastal environmental management in Bangladesh.
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