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Study on Ecological Compensation in the Songhua River Basin Based on Ecosystem Service Valuation

Congress: 2008
Author(s): Zi Tang, Jie Shang
Zi Tang: assistant Jie Shang: professor

Keyword(s): the Songhua River Basin, Ecological Compensation, Ecosystem Service Valuation
AbstractAt present, the shortage and pollution of water resources have affected the global economic and social development. Located in the northeast China, the Songhua River Basin is Chinese third largest river basin and a major sub-basin of international Heilongjiang/Amur River system. But with the rapid social and economic development, the ecological environment of the Songhua River Basin suffered a certain degree of destruction and degradation, which not only directly threatened watershed sustainable development, but also related to the ecological security of international basin. In order to gain economic profits, human began destruct and plunder natural resources. Therefore, it is essential to assess the economic value of watershed ecosystem services and establish watershed environmental-economical accounting system, so that provide mankind comprehensive understanding of the value of water resources. There are direct and indirect watershed ecosystem services in the Songhua River Basin which supply important material foundation for mankindís survival and development. This paper studies a part of direct services function including water supply, aquatic product, and hydro-energy, as well as indirect services function including water storage, flood control, water purification, and biodiversity maintenance. As common goods, watershed lacked the original allocation of the environmental and natural resources right, resulting in inequity of the development rights between the upstream and downstream. Therefore, the establishment of watershed ecological compensation is the principal means to resolve this issue. Healthy watersheds provide valuable services to human society, which offer a reference to establish the standard of ecological compensation. On the basis of evaluating ecosystem service valuation, this paper constructed the mechanism of ecological compensation from the subject, object, method and approach of compensation, which involves why should it be done, who should be the main stakeholders to provide the compensation and who should be the main stakeholders to accept the compensation, how much should it be paid and how to compensation. By demand-driven market and government guidance, aimed mainly improvement of water environment, with watershed ecological compensation at the core, with the active participation of all stakeholder, the Songhua River Basin should establish the mechanism that the upper, middle and lower reaches shared profits, risks and losses, so that achieve common economic development and prosperity of the whole basin.
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