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Challenges of water resources planning in the Andes

Author(s): The case of Quito in Ecuador
Congress: 2008
Author(s): Jean-Christophe POUGET, Roger CALVEZ, Patrick LE GOULVEN, Pablo LLORET, Marcos VILLACIS
POUGET Jean-Christophe*, CALVEZ Roger*, LE GOULVEN Patrick*, LLORET Pablo**, VILLACIS Marcos* *: IRD Ecuador, Whymper 442 y Coruña, Apartado 17.12.857, Quito, tel: (5932) 250 48 56, fax: (5932) 250 40 20, UMR G-EAU jcpouget@ird.fr; roger.calvez@ird.fr; patrick.legoulven@ird.fr; UR GREAT ICE villacis@msem.univ-montp2.fr **: FONAG, Av. Mariana

Keyword(s): integrated water resources management, Andes, decision support system, allocation models
Article:
AbstractAguAndes is a research project supporting the integrated water resources management (IWRM) in Andean basins. The main pilot basin corresponds to the Metropolitan District of Quito (DMQ) in Ecuador. The DMQ is located in the inter-Andean basin of Guayllabamba, around 2800 m of altitude. This basin was selected for the following reasons: (1) a very high population growth which transforms agricultural zones to urban areas; (2) several competing water demanding sectors: irrigation, drinking water, hydroelectric energy and ecotourism; (3) the mobilization of high mountain resources in significant ecological areas; (4) a political will to reorganize the water management in Ecuador, the DMQ IWRM being a pilot scheme; (5) a great project of new infrastructures. The Ríos Orientales Project (PRO) proposed by the EMAAP-Q aims at collecting a total flow of 17 m3/s from 31 rivers of the Amazonian basin. This project is presented as the only alternative to supply the DMQ drinking water since 2015 up to 2055. The different steps of our work are: (1) to observe, characterize and model the water resources allocation on the DMQ and to co-construct an adapted decision support system (DSS) for IWRM; (2) to contribute to the institutional structuring for the basin management; (3) to train partners and students with integrated management methods and tools. Several research activities are developed within the first step: (1) the biodiversity study of Amazonian slope rivers in order to propose ecological flows and to ensure an environmental sustainability; (2) the socio-economic study of regional and prospective agricultural activities based on a topology of farms and production units; (3) the generation of mountain flow time series taking into account global changes; (4) the construction and evaluation of water resources allocation models. This paper focuses on models construction and the first evaluations. The allocation models are used as tools to support decisions regarding: (a) planning, i.e. the definition of future projects to satisfy prospected needs and uses; (b) operational management, i.e. management rules to satisfy current existing system objectives. These models allow to simulate the water resources allocation on natural inflows time series regarded as representative of the hydrological variability. The calculations are based on the water balance conservation and the respect of transits and priorities. Software as HyD2002, MODSIM, WEAP are used in order: (1) to model, as topological diagrams, water systems with reservoirs, water collecting and transport components, consumptive and non-consumptive water demands; (2) to simulate the water systems operation at various stages; (3) to evaluate the system performances based on time series statistical analyzes of objectives satisfactions. From the libraries proposed, the Hyd-Quito DSS will be developed in close cooperation with all partners in order to optimize the current reservoirs management and to simulate several alternatives of new resources uses. A research topic will be centered on the integration between long term planning strategies and medium term allocation strategies. The developed approach will have to integrate the socio-economic and ecological evolutions (urbanization, agriculture and biodiversity) and hydrological variability taking into account global changes.
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