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The connection between the Nile Water Agreements and the Upper Nile Projects

Congress: 2008
Author(s): Adel A. khafagi
Sohair S. Zaghloul Associate Professor, National Water Research Center Building, El-Quanater El-Khairiya Egypt, P.O. Box: 13621 Adel A. khafagi Chairman, the Planning Sector, Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation

Keyword(s): The Nile River Basin, The Upper Nile Projects, The Nile Water agreements
AbstractThe Nile River is one of the world's great assets. Throughout history, the river has nourished livelihoods, an array of ecosystems, and a rich diversity of cultures. Ten countries share the Nile: Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Egypt, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Rwanda, Sudan, Tanzania, and Uganda. All waters in Burundi and Rwanda and more than half the waters in Uganda are produced internally, while most of the water resources of Sudan and Egypt originate outside their borders: 75% of Sudan's and more than 95% of Egypt's water resources Like all shared rivers, the interaction between the Nile riparian countries is governed by bilateral and regional agreements, which started being installed over 100 years ago, between the years 1891 and 1993. The two most important agreements for Egypt are the Nile water agreement of 1929 between Egypt, Sudan, and the Equatorial Lakes Plateau Countries, and the Egypt and Sudan Nile agreement in 1959 for apportioning the water shares between the two parties. The Upper Nile projects can be classified into three groups: Projects that have a negative impact on the Nile River inflow, like Karadobi Reservoir project in Ethiopia. Projects that have a positive impact on the Nile River inflow, which include the four main projects under the agreement of 1959 between Egypt and Sudan (Jonglei Canal projects I & II, Mashar project, and Bahr el-Ghazal project). Also included is the Baro-Akobo project, which benefits Egypt, Sudan, and Ethiopia. Projects that have a net neutral effect on the Nile River inflow, like the Marowei Dam project. The objective of this research is to analyze the Upper Nile projects and their negative/positive effects with respect to Egypt and their relationship with Nile water agreements between Nile Basin Riparian Countries. The paper also is performed to emphasize and demonstrate the response of the Nile Basin Riparian Countries to these projects after the installment of the Nile Basin initiative. The study is concluded by the fact that Egypt is doing its best to put down an inclusive and wide-ranging agreement that includes all the Nile Basin Riparian Countries. It also does not oppose any project proposed by one of the Nile Basin Riparian Countries that increases the Nile inflow on condition that it does not negatively affect its river water share.
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