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Monitoring Development as Essential Part of Water Quality Management: Case Study of Ukraine

Congress: 2008
Author(s):
Deputy Chairman, State Hydrometeorological Service of Ukraine Deputy Chairman, National Committee of Ukraine for IHP UNESCO Address: 6, Zolotovoritska str. 01601, Kyiv-34, Ukraine tel: +38 044 239 93 27; fax. +38 044 288 10 62 e-mail: himet@ukrweathe

Keyword(s): monitoring water quality, water quality management, case study Ukraine
AbstractIntroduction With respect to the potential water resources (1.6 cub km of water in a year per a inhabitant) Ukraine is one of the poorest countries in Europe. The large volume of pollutants (oil products, sulphates, chlorides, organic matter, pesticides, heavy metals and so on) have been thrown down into the waters together with a sewage waters. That is why water quantity and quality became as limiting factor of usage of water resources and sustainable development of the country. The national policy of sustainable development concerns a wide spectrum of water management, including water quality management, and is aimed at reliable methods of water quantity and quality assessment. Among water quality management measures the development of the water quality monitoring system is the one of the most important. Objectives The purpose of this paper is to examine of the experience of Ukraine in the field of the development of the surface water quality monitoring as part of water quality management. Results In Ukraine the national activity in the field of water quality monitoring is regulated by Water Code, Laws on Environmental Protection and on Hydrometeorological Activity, and a number of Regulations of the Cabinet of Ministers. The institutional activities in this field are undertaken by a number of governmental bodies. The Hydrometeorological Service operates the most extensive the surface water quality monitoring network. The observations of the water pollution are carried out on 140 rivers, 15 reservoirs, 8 lakes and estuaries, by 255 points of observations, including 406 measuring sections. These observations are based on physical, chemical, and biological parameters with simultaneous measurement of hydrological parameters. The measurement of physical and chemical parameters is conducted at all the observing points and biological parameters are measured at 20% of observing points. Sampling based on an obligatory standard program include the measurement of 40-45 physical and chemical parameters carried out in major hydrological phases 4 times a year for reservoirs and lakes and 6-7 times a year for rivers. There also are others governmental bodies which carried out respective water quality monitoring according to their specific responsibility. Each body involved in water quality monitoring uses its own software and data bank. As a result, the monitoring data are distributed over various sources, unintegrated, and not comparable. There is no harmonized methodology for water quality monitoring. There are frequent information gaps on the status of water quality, whereas data collected within one monitoring program is very difficult to interpret in other processing system. Ukraine should undertake efforts to meet its water quality monitoring system to the EU Water Framework Directive. The implications of the implementation of the WFD to be found in the legislative, organizational, scientific and technical fields. In contrast to the WFD, the Ukrainian water legislation focuses on very stringent limit values for emission but without defining water quality standards for water bodies and the period in which they have to be accomplished with. Therefore the monitoring is concentrated on controlling of effluents but without obligation to draw conclusions and elaborate measures to be taken and action plans regarding the achievement of a required water quality. It is necessary to upgrade the programs of monitoring which were established several decades ago, with differently defined objectives and approaches. It is very important to improve the technical equipment of water quality observation and analytical control. The inter department program to improve the technical layout and equipment of monitoring should be created and implemented. The very important part of the integrated strategies for monitoring and assessment of water quality is the creation of Early Warning Pollution Systems (EWPS). The objectives of EWPS are to trigger an alarm as well as to make a diagnosis to find the origin of the pollution. The very limited state budget does not allow the State Hydrometeorological Service decide problems of its technical modernization during the short period. It compels us to solve the problems of development in the close connection with financial aspects, to look for new key factors for regulating relations between the Service and consumers of water quality products which might promote the adaptation of the Service to new economical conditions. The ways of development of water quality monitoring system in Ukraine, first of all, in the State Hydrometeorological Service, are considered in the paper in details. Conclusions The effective water quality monitoring system is the essential component of water quality management measures. The present state of the water quality monitoring system in Ukraine cannot satisfy the objectives of water quality management. It is very important to undertake efforts in the field of the development of the water quality monitoring system in different directions on state, interdepartmental and local levels.
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