BPS Statistics Indonesia1
Water cuts across many of the development goals from poverty, to health, energy and the environment; so this must reflect on the interactions and identify locally appropriate solutions to managing water for. In further, water is a basic necessity for human life, especially for use as drinking water, cooking food, washing, bathing and toilet facilities. Availability of water supply system is the part that should be prioritized to meet the needs of both urban and rural. Until now, the provision by governments faces constraints, both human resources and other resources. For those reasons stated, water management in terms of supporting the equality access achievement as a human rights basis this will be key to success for development.
Keywords: clean-water, cross-tabulation, poor, odds-ratio, relative risk
According to the United Nations report (2013), stated that water use has been growing at more than twice the rate of population in the last century, and an increasing number of regions are chronically short of water. At the same time, water is a crucial resource for meeting the development aspirations of poor countries, especially in Asia and Africa.
The proposed Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), a set of goals drafted by 70 nations and presently being discussed in the UN General Assembly to end poverty and hunger and sustain the environment, it will guide social policy and investments for decades to come. Sustainable Development goals offer unique opportunity to transform management of critical water resources and promote efficient, nationally and locally appropriate water use will be key to achieving the SDGs. Key challenges include setting realistic targets, carefully considering the local context to address the needs of the poor, and promoting sustainable water resources development in a way that values healthy ecosystems.
One of the objectives in point 7 Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is to ensure environmental sustainability. In the points listed target to reduce the proportion of households without sustainable access to safe drinking water and adequate sanitation by half in 2015. Nowadays, relatively low access to drinking water reflects that rate of supply of drinking water infrastructure cannot keep pace with population growth, in addition to plenty of drinking water infrastructure is not maintained and the management is not sustainable. The SDGs follow the U.Ns. led MDGs, which focused on reducing extreme poverty. The SDGs focus on sustainable development, taking into account such factors as water scarcity, food insecurity, ecosystem loss, and climate change.
In comparison cases to other natural resources, water underpins sustainable development perhaps more than any other. Whilst, providing everyone with access to water whether male, female, wealthy or poor also is vital to achieving the SDGs on health, livelihood improvement and economic growth. "This is especially important in rural and urban fringe areas," said Julie van der Bliek, the publication's lead editor of the Institute of Management Water International (2014). Water concerns permeate the SDGs. Goal 6 calls for ensuring the availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all.
This research paper purposes to study on the prevalence of drinking water consumption patterns of Indonesian households. The specific objective is assessing the difference of urban-rural where significant infrastructure of water management included related to policy demand. To guide meaningful action, SDGs targets will need to support the aspirations of developing nations for development of which can be obtained from this research result.
The data used are secondary data is the result of the SUSENAS the third quarter of 2013 was collected by the BPS Statistics Indonesia. Some other sources derived from the literature studies helps refine the analysis in the study and simultaneously as a previous literatures study. Processing data uses SPSS 13 software in terms of producing tabulation data analysis from macro data set directly.
Sample of the SUSENAS module consumption obtained by two-stage stratified sampling (classification of rural/urban). The sampling frame used is of two types namely the selection of primary sample frame is a list of regular census block mapping in the 2010 population census. While the secondary sampling frame is a list of common household results in a block listing Population Census (PS) 2010. The sample size was set at 300,000 households. Hereafter, there are 75000 samples per quarter as an independent household and in 4 quarterly samples. The analytical method used is a cross-tabulation table and relative risk. Results are expected to be considered in the formulation of policies related to compliance with drinking water in Indonesia.
The availability of clean water as a source of drinking water for daily needs is one indicator of the health of the household. Poor households in Indonesia are only 46.87 percent who have enjoyed clean water as drinking water. Meanwhile poor households do not have access to clean water by 66.73 percent. Poor households in urban areas as much as 56.52 percent have access to clean water, while in rural areas only amounted to 41.44 percent. This indication shows that the provision of access to clean water to rural areas in order to be prioritized. Urban households 1.25 times easier access to clean water for drinking than in the countryside. Disparities prove that poor households have limited access to clean water supply as drinking water. Relative risk values of 0, 833 suggest that poor households 0,833 times relatively easy to get clean water than from the household that is not poor. Values less than 1 indicate that the non-poor households actually the one that is much easier to access clean water. Increasing income will secure an economic access for every single household to consume clean water as well as the increasing odds ratio from the higher classes.
Head Count Index by water availability shows that 6.56 percent of households are considered poor of all households have the availability of clean water as drinking water. While 13.76 percent of households categorized as poor of all households are not able to provide clean water for drinking water. Figures head count index shows the percentage of poor people according to the availability of clean water indicates that the government plays an important role in building water supply for poor households.
Mapping the prevalence pattern of water consumption for drinking water is expected to be a material consideration in the provision of facilities to improve access to clean water as well as a variety of related policy formulation. Moreover, the findings can be a solution problem for supporting better strategy and policy formulation related to water management in urban-rural and access for community. 1. Agenuresti , Alan. (1990)Categorical Data Analysis . New York : John Wiley & Son.
2. BAPPENAS, National Development Planning Board. (2010) Achievement of Millennium Development Goals Report. Jakarta : The Republic of Indonesia.
3. BPS Statistics Indonesia (2013) Calculation and Analysis Macro Poverty 2013. Jakarta : BPS , Statistics Indonesia.
4. United Nations (2013) Setting and Achieving Water-Related Sustainable Development Goals. UNs. NY. 2013.