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Impact Of Natural Hazards On Wetland Ecosystem And Mitigationoption For Remediation, Productivity And Sustainability In Indo-bangladesh Coastal Regions

Congress: 2015
Author(s): BISWAPATI MANDAL (MOHANPUR DIST. NADIA, India), A. M. PUSTE, T. K. MANDAL, K. JANA, B. Ray PRAMANIK
B.C.K.V., DEPARTMENT OF AGRONOMY1, Government of West Bengal, Department of Agriculture2, GOVERNMENT OF WEST BENGAL, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE3

Keyword(s): Sub-theme 11: Key vulnerabilities and security risks,
AbstractThe vast wetland ecosystem including coastal ecozones, mostly dominated in north-eastern part of Indian sub-continent close to Indo-Bangladesh regions, is a rich source of biodiversity (soil, land, water and agro-ecological biosphere), assembling of various types of natural resources - flora and fauna. Unfortunately, these god-gifted resources are still not being utilized properly for development and making economically viable for the resource-poor even down-trodden farming community, particularly for upliftment of poor to marginal section of people. Most of the people are poor, even below poverty-line (BPL) due to lack of minimum level of habitats in their everyday live-supports (housing, foods, health, education, animal resources, transport etc.). Notably, it is to be marked the existing tragic scenario as 'The poorest people living in the richest natural resource zone'. Indeed, divergence of coastal biosphere tracts and uncounted scattered deltas of Indian subtropics possess high productive ecosystem comprising immense valuable natural resources. The stability of the ecosystem of these regions is oftenly subjected to varying degrees of stresses and degradation caused by different man-made and natural activities. Moreover, thermal power, various chemical plants and food / beverage industries produced largest amount of hazardous pollutants that polluted soil, water and environment in consequences. Development strategies include integration of variables (natural, plant and animal biosphere) based on specific plan of actions were initiated for upright production system, which exhibited positive economic outturn due to wide use of natural bio-diversity. In addition, coastal management programmes (i. mangroves and forest management, ii. aquaculture and fisheries management, iii. agriculture and livestock farming, iv. integration of food crops (deep-water rice, water chestnut, makhana etc.-cum-fish culture, IFS, v. watershed-based rainwater conservation and recycling, vi. small-scale enterprises and vii. education, training and intensive extension strategies) - the mitigation options suited to bio-diversity, are thus imperative to make upliftment of rural economy as well, as the mounting pressure of this area poses a threat to the ecosystem and makes it vulnerable for their life support. Identification of problems and adoption of appropriate farm technology (PRA, ToT, system manipulations, agro-techniques) were the key options for mitigations in rural scenario. This enormous assimilation of enterprises was certainly uplifted their standard of living and livelihood pattern, may be more effective in developing country like India. Comprehensive studies were made at the sites near and far away the industrial areas under the coastal eco-zones (CEZ) on the effect of emissions on soil (suspended particulate matters, pH, organic carbon, CEC, available S and NO3--N content) and wetland water characteristics (pH, BOD, COD, SO2--S, Cl--, NO3--, turbidity, Cd and F--). It is remarkable to note that wetlands are certainly important for many of the functions (regulations, production, carrier, information functions etc.), which are imperative and integral part of rural economy as well - not be ignored. It reveals from the analytical results, both soil and water characteristics were remarkably influenced in relation to vicinity and away from the source of pollutants, indications comparatively less and worse affected due to factors leading in these agro-zones. Water containing a substantial amount of suspended particulate matters and other dissolve organic substances also affected its quality. Physico-chemical characterization of soil and water in wetlands greatly differs relating to permanent (2.5 ± 1.0 m of water depth round the year), semi-permanent (flooding during rainy of 2.0 ± 1.0 - 1.5 m of water depth & drying during summer) and temporary (flooding during rainy of ≤ 2.0 ± 1.0 - 1.5 m of water depth & drying during summer including part of winter) in nature. Case studies were also undertaken during wet and post-wet months on starch and protein-rich important and popular aquatic food crops (water chestnut - Trapa bispinosa Roxb. and makhana - Euryale ferox Salisb.) for the improvement of soil and water, which may greatly relates with the economic viability of the resource-poor farm families in the coastal regions. Remarkable improvement on fruit & kernel yield, MYE and economic output (GMR, NP and B-C ratio) were exhibited with the system. The ultimate outcome of the improvised farm technology, which exhibited positive return due to wise use of natural resources without further degradation through augmented income, even it reached about 3.0 folds than that of pre-intervention system, which helped to development of livelihoods, who are inextricably linked with rural sustainability in these agro-regions. Soil physico-chemical characteristics like pH (7.16, 7.25), organic C (0.69, 0.71%), organic matter (1.22, 1.31%), ammoniacal N (0.065, 0.078%), nitrate N (0.047, 0.052%), available N (0.072, 0.078%), P (92.0, 131.3 kg ha-1) and K (372.6, 402.4 kg ha-1), respectively are most important for growing such crops. Analysis of water bodies represents water characteristics values, like pH (7.07, 7.32), EC (0.72, 0.68 dsml--1), BOD (1.46, 1.98 g l--1), COD (2.16, 2.57 g l--1), CO3-- (1.39, 1.42 meq.l--1), HCO3-- (1.56, 1.88 meq.l--1), NO3--N (29.86, 31.22 g l--1), SO4--S (387.69, 412.86 g l--1) and Cl-- (168.54, 174.23 mg l--1), respectively were most responsive for the crops. All the characters of both soil and water were also significantly influenced by the depth and duration of submergence under this investigation. From the field as well as laboratory studies and ultimately reflections on these greater agro-regions of the country, it may be concluded that this vast unused waste wetlands including coastal ecozones may effectively be utilized through some remedial options, which are imperative and congenial for enhancing productivity, upliftment of livelihoods and sustainability of this rural farming community, who are inextricably linked with the ecosystem as well. Key words: Coastal wetlands, degradation, integration aquatic crop-fish, mitigations, pollutants, productivity, soil-water characterization, sustainability
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