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Groundwater Quality In Rural Communities Of San Luis Potos.

Congress: 2015
Author(s): NAHUM MEDELLIN (SAN LUIS POTOSI, Mexico), CANDY CARRANZA
UNIVERSIDAD AUTÓNOMA DE SAN LUIS POTOSI, UNIDAD ACADEMICA MULTIDISCIPLINARIA ZONA HUASTECA1

Keyword(s): Sub-theme 1: Water supply and demand,
AbstractThe State of San Luis Potosi, is no stranger to the problems of water availability, and is increasingly common for some sectors of the population to suffer from shortages of the resource in their homes. Although the existent sources of supply, many rural communities lack of water or of its quality to meet basic needs or if they have water, there is no proper management of this resource. In San Luis Potosi highland, CNA has classified its groundwater as saline with contents of > 2000 mg / L. In a study of water quality in several communities in the municipality of Charcas. The aim of this study is to assess the quality of groundwater for human consumption in rural communities of San Luis Potosi that do not have quality studies. The place of study is located in the highland of San Luis Potosi, in the municipalities of Charcas and Moctezuma. The selection of the communities was based on the lack of water quality studies that these places presented. By having water quality data, decisions may be taken to prevent injury to health. Water samples were taken directly from the well as indicated in the NOM-014-SSA1-1993. In those wells that had external faucet, the water runs for 3 min, trying not to contaminate the cap, neck and inside the bottle. It was taken a little of water for analysis, the container was closed and stirred vigorously for 3 times to rinse the container, then that water was discarded and collected the water sample to be analyzed. Samples were collected in triplicate. For the analysis of trace metals were added 30 μl of HNO3 per ml of water. Measurements taken immediately in the field were pH, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity and temperature. Water samples were placed in batches in polyethylene bags and transported to the laboratory under refrigeration (4 and 10 ° C). The analysis of alkalinity, acidity and hardness were performed the next day of the sampling and the rest of the samples were preserved in refrigeration for later analysis of fluoride, trace metals, etc. In general, we found that people take water directly from the well, without giving any treatment of chlorination. This has caused gastrointestinal disorders, vomiting, headache, etc, (in the early times of intake) (personal interviews with the inhabitants of the region). Only three of the communities visited have shed protection of their wells (Alvaro Obregon, Miguel Hidalgo and Pocitos). According to the parameters measured in field, pH was found to be acceptable. The conductivity exceeds the allowable limit and the hardness is within the stated range, the dissolved oxygen (DO) is below the value, the turbidity was detected in high quantity. The OD value indicates that there is little aeration in the water. Turbidity indicates that water has high dissolved solids that could occur because the majority of cases small landslides occur on the walls of the well. As for the conductivity, the greater the amount of dissolved salts, the higher the conductivity, so is deducted that the well water has high concentration of salts and dissolved solids. Regarding to laboratory analysis, the alkalinity of water is very high in all wells tested, it is known that acidic groundwater is not acid; however, the waters of the highland are considered highly alkaline by the presence of carbonates in the subsoil. The concentration of fluoride and arsenic values obtained in San Jose del Grito and the spring of Moctezuma, Alvaro Obregon and La Trinidad de Charcas, do not exceed the values established by NOM-127 and those established by the (WHO) World Health organization, which means that the water on these parameters is suitable for human consumption. However, in Pocitos, Cedazo and Miguel Hidalgo de Charcas, the values obtained of fluoride and arsenic exceed the values established by the NOM-127 in 0.012 and 0.015 units for fluoride and arsenic, respectively. The value for fluoride also exceeded the limits established by the (WHO) World Health Organization which corresponds to 0.07 mg / L. In the case of groundwater, such contamination can be caused by the dissolution of the elements coming from the soil in contact with water. It is important, to point that these results are from an exploratory analysis for the main pollutants found in the highlands; however, to establish clearly the quality of well water for sustainable supply of the locality may be done other specialized isotope studies, which UASLP don't do routinely. According to comments from the people themselves, the water is consumed directly without any treatment, so it should be noted that 50% of exposure to fluoride comes from water consumption and 50% of food and of toothpaste. If food is cooked with this contaminated water, the fluoride intake is higher because the fluoride is concentrated by boiling water. It is necessary to INFORM adequately and responsibly to the people of NO cooking with their tap water because fluoride food concentrates at high temperatures. EDUCATE through campaigns to avoid the direct consumption of tap water because fluoride can cause dental and skeletal fluorosis. Dental fluorosis is characterized by the darkening of the teeth and skeletal fluorosis by hardening of the bones that can lead to cracks of the same, and is often confused with osteoporosis, because of the similar symptoms. On the other hand, arsenic can cause carcinogens skin problems, characterized by flaking and sores in hands and joints. As described above, it is recommended that water from these wells, especially those with problems of contamination by fluorides and arsenic, is used only for domestic use, and that the community preferably drink purified water of bottle. In addition, the final part of this project includes testing on a lab with absorbent materials to remove fluoride from water, which in future can operate as an economical alternative to remove the element of water from the well, and so the water can be of higher quality. 1. Fernández García, S., Alfaro de la Torre, M.C. (2007). Valoración de la calidad del agua superficial en el Sitio Sagrado de Wiricuta (Altiplano Potosino). Desarrollo de Proyectos, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, UASLP. Reporte de proyecto. 2. Norma Oficial Mexicana NOM-014-SSA1-1993. Procedimientos sanitarios para el muestreo de agua para uso y consumo humano en sistemas de abastecimiento de agua públicos y privados. Diario Oficial. 3. Standard Methods, Method 1060-C., 1998. Sample storage and preservation. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 20th Edition. Washington, DC. American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Environment Federation. 4. Norma Mexicana NMX-AA-077-SCFI-2001, Análisis de aguas- Determinación de fluoruros en aguas. (5) Norma Oficial Mexicana. NOM-014-SSA1-1993 "PROCEDIMIENTOS SANITARIS PARA EL MUESTREO DE AGUA PARA USO Y CONSUMO HUMANO EN SISTEMAS DE ABASTECIMIENTO DE AGUA PUBLICOS Y PRIVADOS"
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