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Water Quality In The Wetland La Conejera, Colombia

Congress: 2015
Author(s): SARA AVILA DE NAVIA (BOGOTA, DC, Colombia), SANDRA MONICA ESTUPIiĎAN TORRES
UNIVERSIDAD COLEGIO MAYOR DE CUNDINAMARCA1

Keyword(s): Sub-theme 10: Management of water resources,
AbstractIntroduction: Wetlands are ecosystems essential for the conservation of the biodiversity and the well-being of the human population, the importance of wetlands, lies in the different values of ecological, hydrological and anthropic character underpinning such as: reservoir plant, wildlife and genetic species, producers of biomass, therapeutic potential, protection of the environment and the soil, regulation of the hydrological system, alluvial sediments, debugging, reservoir for water, and maintenance of the damp environment. Wetlands in Bogota, have undergone changes of anthropogenic origin product of the appropriation and use of its public spaces, such as the use of land for agricultural or livestock purposes, the expansion of urban areas for industrial purposes or recreation and alteration of hydraulic schemes in recent years. As result of these excessive actions has been an alteration of the natural dynamics of the basins receiving the waters that nourish wetlands and changes in vegetation cover that increase the sediment load and modify the water-holding capacity. Park ecological wetland La Conejera is located to the Northwest of the city, within the wetlands system that makes up the network of hydrological capital district, according to the agreement 19 of 1996 was declared nature reserve of Bogot√° and it is administered by the Foundation wetland La Conejera, also on-site the ecological police training is carried out since 1993, understands their problems: desiccation of the wetland and its primary sources, tamponade of natural drainage and runoff for urbanism, the filling of wetland and its watershed for use in agriculture, recreation and urbanisation, the decrease of its natural area by the construction of longitudinal dikes, the hunting of wildlife, diseases that affect wildlife and exploitation of groundwater among others. Since 1993, when the community was organized and was born the Foundation wetland La Conejera, several actions geared to the conservation of this ecosystem as have been advanced: Canalization of rain water in the quebrada Salitrosa, an interceptor that captures sewage on the South side of the wetlands, construction of an interceptor and local networks in 23 surrounding neighborhoods, which allowed to reduce by more than 90% the dumping water to the wetland. This project aims to make the diagnosis on the bacteriological quality of the waters of the wetland La Conejera, which allows to make a diagnosis of the current status of the wetland, to reduce the impacts on the health of the environment, of the inhabitants of the sector and the conservation of this body of water. Methods/materials: The methodology used included taking samples of 20 points, to diagnose possible temporal variations of the bacteriological quality, conducted two surveys, one in rain season (May), and the other in dry season (March). The samples were obtained by taking into account the guidelines for taking samples of water from the Ministry of health of Colombia (475 Decree of 1998) and the recommendations of Andreu and Camacho. The indicators microorganisms count was conducted with the technique of filtration membrane. The identification of the microorganisms isolated is made by subcultures on the same media used for the above counts. After obtaining the isolated colony-forming units, takes place the identification by means of rapid biochemical tests BBL Crystal, enterobacteria and Gram positive bacteria. Results and discussion: the microorganisms isolated counts showed a higher proportion of CFU/ 100ml in rain season for the genus Enterococcus, Pseudomonas, and Aeromonas, while in season dry microorganisms of greatest count in CFU / 100 ml were Escherichia coli, coliforms. La Conejera wetland water presented a high count CFU/ 100ml for Enterococcus, Pseudomonas, Aeromonas, and therefore should not be used for consumption, agriculture or recreation purposes. In two surveys were counts of CFU/100mL of total coliforms and Escherichia coli above the limits laid down in Decree 1594 of 1984, concluding that the water along the southern margin of the quebrada La Salitrosa and wetland La Conejera is not suitable for human, agricultural and recreational use. The high count of microorganism contamination indicators, is the product of the effect of anthropogenic present in the vicinity of the wetland; of which stands out the construction of residential areas along the course, the presence of domestic animals, cattle and erroneous connections running wastewater directly into the Creek which is the main source of supply of the wetland. Although counts of Escherichia coli in relation to other microorganisms were found to be decreased, it is not evidence of Bacteriological optimal quality of water from wetland La Conejera, because Pseudomonas count was elevated leads to suspect a possible inhibition of E. coli for the production of piocinas by Pseudomonas. Microorganisms of the genus Aeromonas and Pseudomonas may be inferred that introducing high counts of CFU/ 100 ml in the two seasons of sampling can be used as microorganisms that indicate contamination of the water, due to its prevalence in aquatic environments and their epidemiological significance, as concerns it the World Health Organization that gives them a use as a biomarker for contamination of drinking water. Along the southern margin of the La Conejera wetland, dry and rainy season identified 22 different species of microorganisms, of which most have water as a natural habitat and some are fecal type. Conclusion: Diagnosis of the bacteriological quality of the water, will allow the implementation of strategies for the conservation and sustainable development, strengthen the knowledge of the microbial diversity of the ecosystem and will add to the inventory of species in the country and promote the conservation, restoration and management of this and other ecosystems. 1. Andreu E. & A. Camacho. (2002) Recomendaciones para la toma de muestras de agua, biota y sedimentos en humedales Ramsar. Ministerio del Medio Ambiente. Direcci√≥n General de Conservaci√≥n de la Naturaleza. Secretaria General del Medio Ambiente. Madrid 2. Descripci√≥n general de los humedales de Bogot√°, D.C. Sociedad Geogr√°fica de Colombia. [Acceso 16 de enero de 2013] Disponible en: http://www.sogeocol.edu.co/documentos/humed.pdf. 3. http://www.umb.edu.co/pdf/humedales.pdf [Acceso 16 de enero de 2013] 4. Ministerio de Salud de Colombia. (1998) Gu√≠a para la toma de muestras. Decreto 475 de 1998 5. Naranjo, L., Andrade, G. Ponce de Leon, E.(1999) Humedales interiores de Colombia: Bases t√©cnicas para su conservaci√≥n y uso sostenible. Instituto de Investigaci√≥n de Recursos Biol√≥gicos Alexander Von Humboldt, Ministerio del Medio Ambiente, Bogota, Colombia 6. Seo√°nez M. (1999) Aguas Residuales: Tratamiento por Humedales Artificiales, Fundamentos Cient√≠ficos, Tecnolog√≠as, Dise√Īo. Ediciones Mundi Prensa, Madrid, Espa√Īa.
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