Congress Resources: Papers, posters and presentations

< Return to abstract list

Which Way Water Security? A Systematic Map Of Knowledge On The Performance Of Institutional Mechanisms For Water Resource Management In Unlocking Pro-poor And Sustainable Growth.

Congress: 2015
Author(s): Nicholas Hepworth (Edinburgh, UK), Virginia Hooper, Denis Hellebrandt, Bruce Lankford

University of East Anglia1



Keyword(s): Sub-theme 7: Global challenges for water governance,
Abstract

Over the past two decades institutional mechanisms for water resource management (WRM) which emphasise greater participation; economic valuation and market instruments; and decentralisation and devolution of roles have been promoted. But evidence of what works, where and why is difficult to find and this presents problems for decision makers and practitioners.

This paper describes the results of a study commissioned by DFID to systematically map information relating to the question: What factors determine the performance of institutional mechanisms for water resources management in developing countries in terms of delivering pro-poor outcomes, and supporting sustainable economic growth?

Understanding the methodology

To address the question a team of researchers from the University of East Anglia and Water Witness International examined almost 30,000 pieces of available evidence over eighteen months. Systematic reviews and mapping have been used in the health sector for over 30 years to generate unambiguous answers to important questions posed by policy makers and practitioners. Each stage of the process is peer reviewed, and a consistent approach by the research team verified through testing. The work reported here was also guided by an advisory group of international WRM experts. As a systematic map, the work identified, organised and described the evidence relevant to the question.

The methodology involved: identification of relevant academic work, research papers, organisational evaluations or reports; screening for relevance at abstract, title and full text level, prior to coding and mapping against criteria of interest; analysis and cross-tabulation of summary data in a spreadsheet to support interpretation. The results of the systematic map i. Only 38 papers of the 29,844 returned by the initial search were relevant: containing empirical evidence linking poverty and growth outcomes to water resource institutions in developing countries, written in English. ii. Only 42% of these relevant papers contained an adequate description of the methodology, sufficient to permit the replication of the study. iii. A quarter of relevant papers exhibited a weak 'chain of reasoning'. iv. In 20% of relevant papers, the source of funding for the research was not disclosed. v. Institutional mechanisms for water resource management reported can be grouped into seven types: organisational; legal; participation; decentralisation; markets; privatisation and infrastructure. Most articles consider a mixture of these mechanisms, and 'clusters' emerge with several studies of the same type of mechanism in the same geography (i.e. IWRM in East Africa, water markets in Chile). vi. Papers relevant to the systematic map question describe twenty-six factors which explain the performance of water resource institutions. These can be organised using six typologies (contextual, relational, design issues, capacity, organisational behaviour and sector co-dependence). These factors can also be organised according to their origins (after Saleth and Dinar 2005): exogenous, endogenous or interface. The implications for policy and practice 1. Available evidence is extremely modest in size, coverage and quality. 2. Efforts towards optimal institutional design, support and operation should instead be based on local situation analysis which takes into account the full range of factors identified in the map on a case-by-case basis. 3. A concerted global effort is required to strengthen the available evidence base. Implications for research 1. Given the urgency of evidence based action for more effective WRM, the mapping team highlight the need for higher standards and greater rigour in the design, reporting and publishing of research on the topic. 2. Greater transparency within research on WRM institutions is needed. 3. In order to build the evidence base the following should be considered: * Large scale comparative studies, rigorous case study research and longitudinal studies, particularly at global, multi- country and transboundary scale are under-represented in the mapped sample. * Case study research is ideally suited to the type of question explored, although the quality of case study design, conduct and reporting needs to be radically improved to conform with contemporary best practice (see Yin 2009). * Longer-term (>5 year) adaptive action-research involving collaborative teams of researchers, funders, communities and government personnel could usefully demonstrate and study the practice and theory of WRM mechanisms. * Expansion of geographical coverage beyond the handful of landmark studies and clusters documented in this review. * A full systematic review of the mapped articles would be useful to extract a more detailed understanding for how factors influence WRM performance and outcomes. The exercise also flags priorities for publishing, editing and commissioning research on the topic.

Conclusions

This exercise confirms that the pool of reliable knowledge about the performance of WRM institutions is small when the exacting standards of systematic mapping are applied. Whilst the imperatives for getting WRM 'right' are intuitively strong, we currently lack the evidence to: a) confirm whether WRM institutions are performing; and b) comprehend and manage the range of factors which shape that performance. Whilst clear cut evidence of universal determinants of institutional performance is not anticipated, it is startling how little good quality research links policy and institutions to outcomes, or diagnoses the root causes of performance. The significant implications for international policy and practice demand an urgent response. Without adequate knowledge of social and economic outcomes, and the determinants of WRM, efforts to improve performance lack strategic direction and operational accountability, and funding, political and other support for improved performance is at risk. These findings demonstrate the need for radical improvements across the research cycle on the topic, including in commissioning, design, delivery, reporting, review and publishing. ALLAN, J. A. 2001. The Middle East Water Question: Hydropolitics and the Global Economy, London, UK, I.B. Tauris. ALLAN, T. 2003. IWRM/IWRAM: A New Sanctioned Discourse? Occasional Paper 50, SOAS Water Issues Study Group, School of Oriental and African Studies/King’s College London, University of London, April 2003. ALLISON, H. E., AND HOBBS, R. J. 2004. Resilience, adaptive capacity, and the “lock in trap” of the Western Australian agricultural region, Ecology and Society, 9(1): 3. ARKSEY, H., AND O'MALLEY, L. 2005. Scoping studies: towards a methodological framework. Int J Soc Res Methodol, 8(1):19-32. ASIAN DEVELOPMANT BANK, 2003. Water for All: The Water Policy of the Asian Development Bank. Asian Development Bank. website, Accessed 01/02/08. BARDHAN, P. 2000. Irrigation and cooperation: An empirical analysis of 48 irrigation communities in South India. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 48, 847-865. BARDHAN, P. 2005. Institutions matter, but which ones? Economics of Transition, 13, 499-532. BARNETT-PAGE, E., THOMAS, J. 2009. Methods for the Synthesis of Qualitative Research: A Critical Review, BMC Medical Research Methodology, 9, 59-69. BATCHELOR, C. 2006. Water governance literature assessment. Report contributing to the scoping exercise managed by IIED to help develop a DFID research programme on water ecosystems adn poverty reduction under climate change, International Institute for Environment and Development. BENSON C, CLAY E. 1998. The Impact of Drought on Sub-Saharan Africa: a Preliminary Examination.World Bank Technical Paper 401. Washington, DC BISWAS, A. K. 2004. Integrated Water Resources Management: A Reassessment. Water International, 29(2), 248 – 256. BISWAS, A. K. 2008. Current Directions: Integrated Water Resources Management – a second look, Water International, 33(3), 274278. BLAIKIE, P. 2006. Is Small Really Beautiful? Community-based Natural Resource Management in Malawi and Botswana. World Development, 34, 1942-1957. BROWN, C., MEEKS, R., HUNU, K., AND YU, W. 2010. Hydroclimatic Risk to Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa. Climatic Change, DOI: 10.1007/s10584-010-9956-9. BRUCH, C., CARROLL MUFFETT, W., AND NICHOLS, S. S. (eds.) 2010. Governance, Natural Resources, and Post-Conflict Peacebuilding, London: Earthscan. CEBC, 2010. Guidelines for Systematic Reviews in Environmental Science, Version 2. Collaboration for Enviornmental Evidence, Centre for Evidence Based Conservation, Bangor, UK. CEE, 2012. http://www.environmentalevidence.org/Instructionsforauthors_maps.html, accessed 7/02/13 CHRISTIAENSEN L, DEMERY L, PATERNOSTRO S (2002) Growth, distribution and poverty in Africa: Messages from the 1990s. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 2810, 2002 CLAPTON, J., RUTTER, D. AND SHARIF, N. 2009. SCIE Systematic Mapping Guidance, London: Social Care Institute for Excellence CLEAVER, F. 2000. Moral ecological rationality, institutions and the management of common property resources. Development and Change, 31, 361-383. CLEAVER, F. 2002. Reinventing institutions: Bricolage and the social embeddedness of natural resource management. European Journal of Development Research, 14, 11-30. CLEAVER, F., FRANKS, T., BOESTEN, J. AND KIIRE, A. 2005. Water Governance and Poverty: What works for the poor? Bradford Centre for International Development, University of Bradford. CLEAVER, F., AND FRANKS, T. 2005. How institutions elude design: river basin management and sustainable livelihoods, Bradford Centre for International Development, University of Bradford. CLEAVER, F., FRANKS, T., BOESTEN, J. AND KIIRE, A. 2006. Water Governance and Poverty: What works for the poor? : University of Bradford - DFID Research Report. COX, M., ARNOLD, G., AND VILLAMAYOR TOMÁS., S. 2010. A Review of Design Principles for Community-Based Natural Resource Management. Ecology and Society 15(4): 38, [online] URL: http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol15/iss4/art38/ DFID, 2009. Eliminating World Poverty: Building our Common Future, White Paper, July 2009. DERCON, S. 2002. Income risk, coping strategies, and safety nets. World Bank Res Obs 17(2):141–166 DINAR, A., KEMPER, K., BLOMQUIST, W., DIEZ, M., SINE, G., AND FRU, W. 2005. Decentralization of River Basin Management: A Global Analysis. World Bank (Washington DC), World Bank Working Paper 3637. EDWARDS, V. M., AND STEINS, N. A. 1999. A framework for analysing contextual factors in common pool resource research. Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, 1, 205-221. EKOS Consulting, 2006. Evaluation of the Mersey Basin Campaign. Report to Government Office North West. EKOS_Consulting_2006_Evaluation_of_the_MBC_report_to_Govt_Office_NW.pdf FALKNER, R. 2003. Private Environmental Governance and International Relations: Exploring the Links, Global Environmental Politics, 3, 72 - 87. GALAZ, V. 2007. Water Governance, Resilience and Global Environmental Change – A Reassessment of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM), Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University. GEAREY, M., AND JEFFREY, P. 2006. Concepts of legitimacy within the context of adaptive water, management strategies, Ecological Economics, 129‐137. GLEDITSCH, N. P., FURLONG, K., HEGRE, H., LACINA, B., AND OWEN, T. 2006. Conflicts over shared rivers: Resource scarcity or fuzzy boundaries? Political Geography, 25, 361 - 382. GLEICK, P., 2003. Water Use. Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. 28:275–314 GREY, D., AND SADOFF, C. 2007. Sink or swim? Water security for growth and development. Water Policy 9:545–571 GWP, 2009. ‘A New Vision for IWRM’ at Stockholm Water Week 2009, from ‘IWRM in Practice lessons from practical experience’, GWP, Stockholm. HODGSON, G. M. 2006. What Are Institutions? Journal of Economic Issues, Vol. XL No. 1 March 2006 HEPWORTH, N. D. 2009. A Progressive critique of IWRM in sub-Saharan Africa, PhD Thesis, University of East Anglia. HEPWORTH, N., HOOPER, V., HELLEBRANDT, D., ZEITOUN, M., LANKFORD, B., AND PEGRAM, G. 2011. What factors determine the performance of institutional mechanisms for water resources management in developing countries in terms of delivering pro-poor outcomes, and supporting sustainable economic growth? CEE protocol 11-006. Collaboration for Environmental Evidence: www.environmentalevidence.org/SR11006.html. ISRAEL, A. 1987. Institutional Development: Incentives to Performance. Baltimore; London: Johns Hopkins University Press. JEFFREY P., AND GEAREY, M. 2006. Integrated water resources management: lost on the road from ambition to realisation? Water Science & Technology 53 (1) 1–8 KAWAD, 2005. Water Resources Management Briefing Note, Karnakata Watershed Development Project, DFID LANKFORD, B., COUR, J., MERREY, D. J., AND HEPWORTH, N. 2006. From Integrated To Expedient: A Practical Framework For Water Resources Management In Developing Countries River Basins, Research Report No 110, International Water Management Institute, Sri Lanka. LANKFORD, B. A., VAN KOPPEN, B., FRANKS, T., AND MAHOO, H. 2004. Entrenched views or insufficient science? Contested causes and solutions of water allocation; insights from the Great Ruaha River Basin, Tanzania, Agricultural Water Management 69:2 135153. LEVAC, D., COLQUHOUN, H., AND O'BRIEN, K. 2010. Scoping studies: advancing the methodology. Implement Sci 2010;5. 69. doi:10.1186/1748-5908-5-69. MEHTA, L. 2001. The Manufacture of Popular Perceptions of Scarcity: Dams and Water-Related Narratives in Gujara, India, World Development, 29, 2025 - 2041. MILES, M. B., AND HUBERMAN, A. M. 1994. Qualitative Data Analysis. SAGE Publications, London. MOSS, J., WOLFF, G., GLADDEN, G., AND GUTTIEREZ, E. 2003. Valuing Water for Better Governance - How to Promote Dialogue to Balance Social, Environmental and Economic Values? : CEO Panel - Business and Industry. MOSSE, D. 1997. The Symbolic Making of a Common Property Resource: History, Ecology and Locality in a Tank-Irrigated Landscape in South India. Development and Change, 28, 467-504. MOHER, D., LIBERATI, A., TETZLAFF, J., AND ALTMAN, D. G., The PRISMA Group, 2009. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews MOLLE, F. 2009. Water, politics and river basin governance: repoliticizing approaches to river basin management. Water International, 34, 62-70. NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL, 2002. The Drama of the Commons, Ostrom, E., Dietz, T., Dolsak, D., Stern, S., Stovich, and Weber, E. Eds. Washington DC, National Academy Press. NORTH, D. C. 1990. Institutions, Institutional Change, and Economic Performance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990. OHLSSON, L., AND TURTON, A. 1999. The Turning of a Screw: Social Resource Scarcity as a Bottle-neck in Adaption to Water Scarcity, SOAS Water Issues Study Group, School of Oriental and African Studies / King's College - London. OSTROM, E. 1990. Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action, New York, Cambridge University Press. OSTROM, E. 2007. Institutional Rational Choice: An Assessment of the Institutional Analysis and Development Framework, In Theories of the Policy Process, ed. Paul A. Sabatier, 21-64.Boulder, CO: Westview Press PAHL-WOSTL, C., DOWNING, T., KABAT, P., MAGNUSZEWSKI, P., MEIGH, J., SCHLUETER, M., SENDZIMIR, J., AND WERNERS, S. 2005. Transition to Adaptive Water Management; The NeWater project, Water Policy, NeWater Working Paper 1., Institute of Environmental Systems Research, University of OsnabrÃŒck. PEARSON, M., JOHNSON, M., AND ELLISON, R. 2010. Review of major Results Based Aid (RBA) and Results Based Financing (RBF) schemes, Final report, March 2010 Human Development Resource Centre, DFID. PEGASYS STRATEGY AND DEVELOPMENT. 2010. AMCOW WORKPLAN JANUARY 2011 – DECEMBER 2013 PEGRAM, G. 2010. Global Water Scarcity: Risks and challenges for business, Lloyd's 360° Insight, Lloyds and Worldwide Fund for Nature. PEGRAM, G., ORR, S., AND WILLIAMS, C. 2010. Investigating Shared Risk in Water: Corporate Engagement with the Public Policy Process. PETROSINO, A., AND LAVENBERG, J. 2007. Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses: Best evidence on “What Works” for Criminal Justice Decision Makers* Western Criminology Review, 8(1), 1–15 (2007) POPAY, J., ROBERTS, H., SOWDEN, A., PETTICREW, M., BRITTEN, N., ARAI, L., ROEN, K., AND RODGERS, M. 2005. Developing guidance on the conduct of narrative synthesis in systematic reviews. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 59(Suppl 1):A7. POSTEL, S. L. 2003. Securing water for people, crops, and ecosystems: New mindset and new priorities, Natural Resources Forum, 27, 89-98. RAHAMAN, M. M., VARIS, O. AND KAJANDER, T. 2004. EU water framework directive vs. integrated water resources management: The seven mismatches, International Journal of Water Resources Development, 20, 565-575. RAMA MOHAN RAO, M. S., BATCHELOR, C. H., JAMES, A. J., NAGARAJA, R., SEELEY, J., AND BUTTERWORTH, J. A. 2003. Andhra Pradesh Rural Livelihoods Programme Water Audit Report, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad 500030, India. ROGERS, P. 2002. Water Governance in Latin America and the Caribbean. Inter-American Development Bank, Sustainable Development Department, Environment Division. ROSENZWEIG M. R., AND BINSWANGER, H. P. 1993. Wealth, Weather Risk and the Composition and Profitability of Agricultural Investments. Econ J, 103:56–78 SALETH, R. M., AND DINAR, A. 2003. Water Institutional Reforms in Developing Countries: Insights, Evidences, and Case Studies, Working Paper, Initiatives for Policy Dialogue, Columbia University, New York, 40pp. SCHOUTEN, T., AND MORIARTY P. 2003. From System to Service The Hague, The Netherlands, IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre and ITDG SALETH, R. M., AND DINAR, A. 1999. Evaluating Water Institutions and Water Sector Performance, World Bank Technical Paper No: 447, World Bank, Washington, DC, xi+93pp. SIWI, 2007. On the verge of a new water scarcity: a call for good governance and human ingenuity, Stockholm International Water Institute, Sweden. SULLIVAN A., AND SIBANDA, M. L. 2010. Vulnerable populations, unreliable water and low water productivity: a role for institutions in the Limpopo Basin, Water International, 35:5, 545-572 SWATUK, L. A. 2008. The multi-governance of water: Four case studies, Global Environmental Politics, 8, 145-146. TORTAJADA, C. 2010. Water Governance: Some Critical Issues, International Journal of Water Resources Development, 26: 2, 297 — 307 TFDD, 2008. Transboundary Freshwater Dispute Database. Corvallis: Oregon State University - Institute for Water and Watersheds, http://www.transboundarywaters.orst.edu/database/. UNDP, 2006. Human Development Report, Beyond Scarcity: Power, poverty and the global water crisis, United Nations Development Programme. New York UN-WATER, 2007. Coping with Water Scarcity: challenge of the twenty-first century. 2007 World Water Day. Rome: UN-Water, Food and Agriculture Organisation. UN-Water, 2009. The World Water Development Report 3, Water in a Changing World. UN UNESCO, 2006. Water a Shared Responsibility, World Water Report 2, UNESCO, Paris. VAN DER ZAAG, P., GUPTA, J., AND DARVIS, P. 2009. Urgent water challenges are not sufficiently researched. HESS Opinions. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 13: 905-912 [doi:10.5194.hess-13-905-2009] VERMA, S., KAMPMAN, D. A., VAN DER ZAAG, P., AND HOEKSTRA, A. Y. 2009. Going against the flow: A critical analysis of inter-state virtual water trade in the context of India's National River Linking Program, Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 34, 261 - 269. WARNER, J., AND JOHNSON, C. L. 2007. 'Virtual Water' - Real People: Useful Concept or Prescriptive Tool? Water International, 32, 63 - 77. WHEELER, S., AND HADADD, L. 2005. Reconciling Different Concepts of Risk and Vulnerability: A Review of Donor Documents, Institute of Development Studies, Sussex WICHELNS, D. 2010. Virtual Water and Water Footprints Offer Limited Insight Regarding Important Policy Questions, Water Resources Development, 26(4), 639–651 WOLF, A. T., KRAMER, A., CARIUS, A. AND DABELKO, G. D. 2005. Managing Water Conflict and Cooperation, State of the World 2005: Redefining Global Security, Worldwatch Institute. WORLD BANK, 2004. Towards a water secure Kenya: water resources sector memorandum. World Bank, Washington, DC WWC, 2003. World Water Actions : Making Water Flow for All. World Water Council, Japan Water Resources Association, United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, www.worldwatercouncil.org/search_actions.php YOUNG, O. 2003. Environmental Governance: The Role of Institutions in Causing and Confronting Environmental Problem, International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, 3, 377 - 393. YIN, R. K. 2009. Case Study Research: Design and Methods, 4th Ed., Sage Publications. ZEITOUN, M., ALLAN, J. A. T., AND MOHIELDEEN, Y. 2010. Virtual water 'flows' of the Nile Basin, 1998 - 2004: A first approximation and implications for water security, Global Environmental Change, 20, 229 - 242. ZEITOUN, M., AND WARNER, J. 2006. Hydro-Hegemony: A Framework for Analysis of Transboundary Water Conflicts, Water Policy, 8, 435-460.

© 2011 IWRA - International Water Resources Association office@iwra.org - http://www.iwra.org - Admin