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Water Supply And Demand - Global Challenges For Water Governance

Congress: 2015
Author(s): Kenny Milligan (Edinburgh, UK)

Keyword(s): Sub-theme 7: Global challenges for water governance,


Scotland has c.2.5 million household properties, with limited household metering, dispersed geographically throughout the country. In 2013/14, Scottish Water's 244 Water Treatment Works produced on average 1824 Ml/d, peaking daily at 2028 Ml/d during the long hot summer of 2013 and troughing at 1741 Ml/d during the autumn months. Both the observed peak and the trough in Distribution Input (DI) were driven by the relationship between household consumption and varying seasonal leakage profiles (chart will be presented in the full paper).

In order to manage demand you first need to 'understand demand'.

In the early to mid-2000s, SW consistently reported high leakage levels and the leakage calculation contained a high proportion of UK leakage industry default values which contributed to lower confidence. Household consumption within the current demand estimate accounts for c.46% of DI and this is estimated with close to zero % household meter penetration.


To enable a more accurate leakage assessment an 'Area' Per household Consumption (PHC) monitor was established in 2008 which would for the first time in Scotland enable an improved reporting of how much water was being used by domestic customers. This improved reporting of Household consumption over the period 2009 to 2014, enabled an increased understanding and has contributed to SW achieving the Economic Level of Leakage (ELL) one year in advance of Regulatory expectation. C.114 PHC zones, reporting every 15 mins were established company wide, based on Scotland's varied and diverse Socio Economic demographics. Reported values from the PHC monitor are then extrapolated to company level for regulatory leakage reporting and lower level granulation for targeted Leakage reduction and Supply/Demand assessments.

Results and Discussion

In recent years as the monitor has matured and more data is available, consumption trends have been identified and there is an increasing amount of 'intelligence' being generated to enable more informed business decisions.

Future work will target:
Scotland's weather and the relationship with population demographics.
Further trend analysis of Socio-economic water consumption patterns.
Zonal improvements to consumption understanding


Scottish Water continues to develop and improve the understanding of household consumption in areas of weather and pressure management, but even with Social demographics alone associated to house types, SW is a considerable way to understanding household demand which could lead to making 'Water demand management' work.

2011 IWRA - International Water Resources Association - - Admin