PARAMOS AREAS FOR RESERVATION OF WATER RESOURCES
Quantification of alternative water reserves that the country is required, as in the case of existing and possible future glacier variations, changes in the patterns of climate change. The snow and glaciers are sources of water for various activities, such as drinking water, safe water, feeding trough aquifers near the snowy, uses in agriculture, irrigation, hydropower, 30%.
Floor area is between 3200 to 3600.
It is characterized by the presence of pasture crops by 70 %, with crops of potatoes, onions, geese, barley, etc. There are areas of flat land devoted to agriculture.
Middle or transitional zone is a strip, located between 3600-3850 meters.
The steep slopes are 30 to 45 %, soils unsuitable for agriculture are characterized by the presence of 80% grasses, natural native vegetation is observed in some areas that have not yet been incorporated into farming.
Paramo Zone, ranging from 3850 up to 4280 meters.
These are lands with natural vegetation, this area has three owners, 1.-st. Community use is 30 %. 2do.- PARAMOS THE STATE OF ECUADOR , 30% and 3ro.- moorland farms owned or private, with 40 % devoted to grazing sheep and cattle.
This is the conflict zone and are required to agree to reduce overgrazing, limiting the expansion of the agricultural frontier and prevent the advancement of human settlements.
CHARACTERIZATION ALTITUDINAL .
EVALUATION OF SOIL AND CAUSES OF DEGRADATION OF MOOR .
A) .- GRAZING ANIMALS.
The main problem encountered is the overgrazing of cattle; sheep and horses that graze freely in areas of wasteland, carelessly destroying the grasslands and the type of hoof that have this type of cattle.
The grazing of these animals are the main causes of degradation of wetlands and wilderness , which by their feeding habits destroy the fragile vegetation of marshes and wetlands , thus facilitating drainage and drying thereof.
Given that the grassland is suitable for feeding livestock without such investment cost is one reason for overgrazing.
B ) .- THE BURNING OF PAJONALES.-
It is a traditional practice of farmers in the highlands who perform them, with the aim of promoting the regrowth of new grassland for feeding both sheep and cattle. The effect of burning is reduced vegetation cover affecting water storage constantly.
The months with the highest number of fires occur in summer are from November to January. It is estimated that about 3 fires occur each season; the burned area was estimated at 30 % to 40 % of the surface.
The fire control of the moors are performed without any prior check, usually no penalties for this type of activity recently communities are conducting awareness campaigns for information related to the non- destruction of the moors.
C ) .- EXPANSION OF THE BORDER AGRICOLA.-
The parceling, extension of smallholdings, soil erosion, increasing population, increasing rate of poverty, retaceo land, these are located in a strip on the edge of the wilderness community. Every family has access to communal wasteland through its plot.
This problem is causing havoc on the moors and water sources, because the agricultural frontier was located 3,600 meters above sea level, is now outdated, and in many places is placing 4,000 m.
D ) .- HUMAN SETTLEMENTS ON LAND WE STOPPED COMUNALES.-
Today the settlement of families seen in the communal lands moors are incorporating natural to growing pasture lands.
The process of "colonization" apparently favored by the facilities provided by the new system and open the possibility of having electricity and other population services.
E) .- WORKS INFRAESTRUTURAS CIVILES.-
However the construction of infra- structure has generated a strong discontent among villagers in the affected areas, mainly for construction of roads, highways, dams , irrigation canals , drinking water, without due care and standards of environmental engineering due to the destruction of wetlands, vegetation cover damage paramo. Damage deposits, slopes that are used to provide water for human consumption and watering.
F ) .- PLANTS EXOTICS.-
3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION :
CORRECTIVE MEASURES IMPLEMENTARSE.-
a) .- Native species CULTURE
Improper practices in agriculture for afforestation of exotic plants and due to the fragility of the soil and grasses, you have to implement the cultivation of native plants, with a vast project of reforestation and afforestation of native species, native to the area. (Paper Tree, pumamaqui, cat's claw)
b ) .- GRAZING ANIMALES.-
Grazing, breeding animals from the area should be implemented, such as llamas, llamingos, alpacas, etc. For the type of hoof and legs of this animal that does not destroy the grassland, or soil.
c ) LIMITATION ON AGRICULTURAL OR BORDER BORDER AGRICOLA.-
Ecuadorian state should limit agricultural limit, a maximum of 3,600 meters. Today grow to reach 4,200 meters. In three crops the ground is dry.
d ) .- THE BURNING OF GRASSLANDS MOOR.-
The burning of grasslands, especially in the summer in the Sierra, is causing the biggest problem of the destruction of the moors and water sources, because the villagers, burning old straw to green again, the green straw and tender for feeding of sheep and cattle, own them or landlords, but activity destroys grasses and animal species living organisms and suitable for this area.
Due to global warming the snow and glaciers of snowcapped volcanoes , lakes and the progressive destruction of the grasslands , pads and wetlands that are in sponges reality that accumulate moisture are currently taking immediate corrective steps to minimize these phenomena adverse anthropogenic and natural.
The increase in population density endangers the moors, as this lowers the surface covering these areas of importance (moors), so it is necessary to implement administrative technical, policy and governments to reduce the advancing agricultural frontier.
Research Field CODENPE 2010 (community project of health infraestructure).- Civil Engineer Carlos Villarreal.