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Real Variant For Improvement Of Ecological Situation In Southern Priaralie

Congress: 2015
Author(s): Yusup Rysbekov (Tashkent, Uzbekistan)


Keyword(s): Sub-theme 8: Revisiting water paradigms,
AbstractReally, it is difficult now to find the expert, which will say confidently that is possible to save one more Aral Sea. The most optimistic forecasts vary between terms of complete disappearance of Aral Sea. In the beginning of 1960s Aral Sea had area more than 64 000 km2, and was ranked as the fourth lake all over the world after Caspian Sea, Great Lakes (North America) and Lake Chad (Africa). Intensive water withdrawal in 1970-1980s for irrigation needs from Amudarya and Syrdarya Rivers, running in the Sea, has resulted in sharp reduction of inflow in the Aral Sea In 1961-1970 inflow was reduced till 30.0 km3/year, 1971-1980 - 16.7 km3, 1981-1990 - 3.45 km3, 1991-1999 - 7.55 km3/year. In 1980-2001 per separate years Amudarya and Syrdarya Rivers' flow did not reach the Aral Sea. Accordingly, Sea level has decreased from 53 m (beginning of 1960s) up to 41 m (1985-1986), and 30m (2001). Since 1960 the Aral Sea coastal line has receded on 130 km. In 1980s Aral Sea was divided on Large and Small Aral Seas (LAS and SAS), and later - the LAS was divided on Western and East Aral Seas (WAS and EAS). Area of SAS, WAS and EAS together was less than 20 000 km2 (2010). On the data National Geographic, EAS has disappeared in 2014. According to experts, 70 % of present Sea level lowering is caused by anthropogenic impact. Formation of the vast saline desert with area of almost 4.0Mio ha in areas between former and present Aral Sea borders is major consequences of the Aral Sea shrinkage that strongly has complicated social-political, sanitary-epidemiological and ecological situation of neighbor territories. Now, after realization of necessary measures by Kazakh Government, experts estimate a management of SAS and Syrdarya River delta as relatively satisfactory. At the same time, difficult situation develops in delta of Amudarya River and concerning preservation of WAS. In the Amudarya delta former ecosystems are destroyed, many lakes have dried up, a salt desert was formed on place of dried up bogs and an area between delta and coastal zone of former WAS and of EAS. In developing situation it is necessary to recognize that creation of "Delta-Sea" artificial ecosystem by way of connection of Amudarya delta with WAS will allow solve a task of restoration of ecological stability in this zone. If not to solve a problem of WAS preservation and while River delta will receive water by "residual principle", management of delta's ecosystem and WAS will be unstable and problem of restoration of Southern Priaralie's ecosystems can not be decided. Now WAS not receives collector-drainage water, and practically all superfluous water of Amudarya flows down to the former EAS bed and vanishes there on useless evaporation. If WAS will be received water flowing down to the dried up territory of the former EAS, it is possible to create system for Saving of the WAS. Analysis shows that a sawing of WAS is a real task - contrary to popular belief that it should die.
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