Congress Resources: Papers, posters and presentations

< Return to abstract list

Water Management And Land Use Planning Integration With Multi Criteria Analysis (mca) Modeling

Congress: 2015
Author(s): Homero Castanier (Quito, Ecuador)


Keyword(s): Sub-theme 10: Management of water resources,
Abstract

By: Homero Castanier

Environmental Management Department - Water and Sanitation Company of the City of Quito

hcastanier@yahoo.com -- homero.castanier@aguaquito.gob.ec

Av. Mariana de Jesus entre Italia y Alemania. Quito, Ecuador

Phone: 593 2 2994500

Theme Area: Management of water resources

ABSTRACT

Introduction

The pressures of population growth and climate change are urging attention to strategies to integrate land use and water in order to allow decision making considering a full range of social, environmental, technical, economic, and financial criteria.

Land use planning and water resources planning are processes widely applied, however they often lack of connection, which leads to deal with problems of water quality and supply.

Land and water resources are complex systems comprised of natural, social, economic, political, and physical subsystems that dynamically and continuously interact. The integrated consideration of these subsystems is the basis of sustainable development and water resources sustainability.

Water management and land use plans for any specific geographic location or region should identify the key variables or elements of the subsystems that have to be given main attention in order to reach an effective integration assuring these elements are not left out or be given minor attention. With the large number of elements that have to be considered, a large number of combinations of potential management actions is possible, being fundamental the application of a multi criteria decision making tool.

The aim of this work is the design of a Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA) model that allows the integration of key interacting factors and elements for water management and land use planning, and to contribute to the assurance that they are given due consideration in the planning processes.

Methods/Materials

This study has a quantitative and qualitative approach, since a basic set of data is gathered, processed and analyzed for their specialized ranking and rating. The model is of general application and includes a wide series of criteria and subcriteria defined according to biophysical and socioeconomic characteristics that can be qualified and determined for each specific case those of greater relevance for their consideration and integration in land use plans and water resources management.

The alternatives of integration categories are the following (adapted from Center for Systems Integration. 2010):

- Water Supply Assessment: Determine adequate water availability.

- Water Supply Development: Expand storage and delivery capacity, increase water supply.

- Rate Structures: Rates and fees.

- Comprehensive Planning Efforts: Connected land use and water management plans.

- Growth Management and Densification: Urban growth and conservation.

- Regional Structures: Inter-institutional agreements and water councils.

- Resource Use Efficiency: Water efficiency and incentives.

- Education: Education to all levels.

The criteria that reflect the values associated with the consequences of each water and land use integration categories are:

- Required Baseline Information

- Existing or Required Planning

- Environment

- Economic Values

- Legal and Policy Framework

- Socioeconomic and Environmental Feasibility

Once the decision context had been established and the options of water and land use integration categories identified, as well as the objectives and criteria that reflect the value associated with the consequences of each option, the next steps of the MCA application are:

- Assign weights for each of the criteria to reflect their relative importance to the decision.

- Value (score) the expected performance of each option against the criteria.

- Combine the weights and scores for each of the options to derive an overall value.

- Examine the results.

- Conduct a sensitivity analysis of the results to changes in scores or weights.

In order to assign weights and scores to the variables of interest and their criteria and subcriteria categories for their ranking and rating, an interdisciplinary team participated on the application of the Model to the case of the Metropolitan District of Quito, Ecuador. The results are shown in Table 1.

Results and Discussion

In the MCA model applied in order to prioritize the strategic components of water and land use integration categories for the case of the Metropolitan District of Quito, the scores obtained by valuing the expected performance of each option against the criteria categories, represent the level of relevance of the integration components to creating integrated land use and water planning processes.

In Table 1 is presented a summary of the ranking or level of relevance of the land and water integration components according to the corresponding scores of the MCA application.

Table 1. Level of relevance of land and water integration components

Ranking / Land and Water Integration Categories / MCA Score

1st / Water Supply Assessment / 1580

2nd / Water Supply Development / 1547

3rd / Regional Structures / 1448

4th / Comprehensive Planning Efforts / 1410

5th / Growth Management and Densification / 1323

6th / Rate Structures / 1319

7th / Education / 1272

8th / Resource Use Efficiency / 1021

The results of the sensitivity analysis carried out demonstrate that the structure of the model is sensitive to minor variations of the input values. Modifying 2 out of 30 subcriteria weights and 6 out of 240 rating values resulted in significant variations of the levels of relevance for the integration components.

Conclusion

Since all the site specific water and land use integration categories must be considered when formulating land use plans, a MCA is an adequate tool in order to determine their specific level of relevance based on the values assigned to the objectives and criteria that reflect the consequences of each integration category.

In the case of the Metropolitan District of Quito, Ecuador, the integration categories that should be paid special attention and prioritized are Water Supply Assessment and Water Supply Development. The middle relevance categories are Regional Structures, Comprehensive Planning Efforts, Growth Management and Densification, and Rate Structures, and finally the two middle-low relevance integration categories are Resource Use Efficiency and Education.

The results allow the optimization of resources and investments and sets priorities related to water management when planning for land use.

1. Bates, Sarah. 2011. Bridging the Governance Gap: Strategies to Integrate Water and Land Use Planning, Second Edition. 2011. Center for Natural Resources and Environmental Policy, the University of Montana.

2. Cap-Net Red Internacional para el Desarrollo de Capacidades en la Gestión Integrada del Recurso Hídrico / Global Water Partnership / UNDP. 2005. Planes de Gestión Integrada del Recurso Hídrico - Manual de Capacitación y Guía Operacional.

3. Castanier, H. 2013. Economic Valuation for Decision Making on the Protection of Water Sources. 6th International Conference on Water Resources and Environmental Research - Water and Environmental Dynamics. Koblenz, Germany.

4. Center for Systems Integration. 2010. Colorado Review: Water Management and Land Use Planning Integration. Colorado Water Conservation Board / Colorado Department of Natural Resources.

5. City of Tucson and Pima County. 2009. Integrating Land Use Planning with Water Resources and Infrastructure - Technical Paper

6. D G Brown, Peter H Verburg, R G Pontius Jr and Mark D Lange. 2013. Opportunities to improve impact, integration, and evaluation of land change models. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 5: 452-457.

7. Donahue, Brian. "Walden Woods: reconciling preservation and use in Thoreau’s country." Environment and Ideology of nature on the Metropolitan Fringe: Green Sprawl. Ed. Kirsten Valentine Cadieux and Laura E. Taylor. New York, NY: Routledge, 2012.

8. DTLR Multi-Criteria Analysis Manual. 2000. Department for Transport, Local Government and the Regions, UK / NERA (National Economic Research). John Dodgson, Michael Spackman, Alan Pearman and Larry Phillips. Contributions from Martin Brader, Andrew Gibbons, Emma Campbell and others.

9. EPA. 2004. Protecting Water Resources with Smart Grow.

10. J Huang, Q Li, R G Pontius Jr, V K, and H Hong. 2013. Detecting the dynamic linkage between landscape characteristics and water quality in a subtropical coastal watershed, southeast China. Environmental Management 51(1): 32-44.

11. Mendoza, G.A., Martins, H. 2006. Multi-criteria decision analysis in natural resource management: A critical review of methods and new modeling paradigms. Elsevier.

12. Miller, Michael, A. 2006. Effects of Land Use on Water Resource Quality. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

13. New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services. 2008. Innovative Land Use Planning Techniques. A HANDBOOK FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT. Editor: Eric Williams. www.des.nh.gov/organization/divisions/water/wmb/repp

14. Personius, Mark. 2013. Water Supply: Searching for Certainty in Uncertain Times. How Does Water Figure into Land Use Planning?. Long Range Planning Management. Whatcom County, WA, USA.

15. Ramsar Convention Secretariat, 2007. Water allocation and management: Guidelines for the allocation and management of water for maintaining the ecological functions of wetlands. Ramsar handbooks for the wise use of wetlands, 3rd edition, vol. 8. Ramsar Convention Secretariat, Gland, Switzerland.

16. SENPLADES. 2011. Guía de contenidos y procesos para la formulación de Planes de Desarrollo y Ordenamiento Territorial de provincias, cantones y parroquias. Ecuador.

17. Swann, Abigail L. S., Inez Y. Fung, John C. H. Chiang. 2011. Mid latitude afforestation shifts general circulation and tropical precipitation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, doi/10.1073/pnas.1116706108.

18. The World Bank. 2013. Multi-criteria Analysis (MCA). http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/ENVIRONMENT/0,,contentMDK:21605094~pagePK:148956~piPK:216618~theSitePK:244381~isCURL:Y,00.html

19. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. 2014. Compendium on methods and tools to evaluate impacts of, and vulnerability and adaptation to, climate change. http://unfccc.int/adaptation/nairobi_work_programme/knowledge_resources_and_publications/items/5440.php

2011 IWRA - International Water Resources Association office@iwra.org - http://www.iwra.org - Admin