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POTENTIAL OF THE RAINWATER IN THE AREAS OF NORTHEAST CLIMATE SEMI-ARID OF BRAZIL

Congress: 2008
Author(s): Josiclêda Domiciano Galvincio, J. B. Menezes
Josiclêda Domiciano Galvíncio Universidade Federal de Pernambuco Departamento de Ciências Geográficas Rua: Professor Morais Rego, S/N e-mail: josicleda.galvincio@ufpe.br
Article: Poster:
AbstractThe problem of the access to the water is historical in Brazil and in the states of the Semi-arid a situation is more emblematic. In general the population that it does not have access the water is bigger in the North (23.3%) and Northeast (56%) of the country. The Northeast Region of Brazil presents a great climatic variability. In the Brazil of Semi-Arid, approximately, 18 million people in an area with about 870 a thousand kilometers squared and that it encloses the north of the States of the Espirito Santo and Minas Gerais, the sertões of Alagoas, Bahia, Ceará, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Piauí, Rio Grande do Norte, Sergipe and southeastern part of the Maranhão. The State of the Maranhão is placed in the Northeast Region of the Brazil, enters the coordinates of 01°01' 10°21' lat. S and 41°48' 48°40' long. W. Encloses an area of 329.555, 8 km ², limiting it north with the Atlantic Ocean, the east with the Piauí, the south and southwest with the Tocantins and the northwest with Pará. This study it had as objective to evaluate the viability of the captation of the rainwater in the Southeastern part (Semi-arid) of the State of the Maranhão. This State is placed in a zone of transitions of humid the semi-arid climates of the northeast interior for the equatorial ones of the Amazônia, what it is reflected in the vegetal formations that transitional of the Savannah (Open pasture) in the south, for the Forests You park in the center and the part east, and for the Ombrófila Forest in the northwest of the State. It was used to divide years dry, normal and humid the analyses of probability with the annual precipitation totals. Of these, one inferred the expected values of occurrence of years whose precipitations are considered normal (around the average) or more droughts (below of the average). The expected values had been esteem using it normal distribution of probability, by means of the Quantis. The criterion of choice of the normal distribution if gave due to the secular precipitation series to show a good tack to this model, what it denotes similar occurrences, probabilistic, of humid years (above of the normal climatology) or dry (below of the normal climatology). Usually, the frequencies to delimit humid or dry years are placed in the quantis of 75 and 25%, respectively, of probability of not excedence (Prob (Prec
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