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Groundwater Resources Of Turkey: A Review

Congress: 2015
Author(s): Merve Islek
DSI General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works,TURKEY1

Keyword(s): Sub-theme 2: Surface water and groundwater,
AbstractTurkey is located in an area where three continents (Europe, Asia and Africa)are closest to each other. Turkey is considered a natural bridge that connects Europe and Asia. Turkey that lies in Asia is known as "Anatolia" and it's surrounded by Black Sea in the North, Aegean Sea in the West and Mediteranean Sea in the South. Turkey is an area, where Eurasian, Arabian, African and Aegan plates are all converge. This results a complex geological setting with seismic and volcanic activity. From Precambrian to Quaternary, all types of rocks can be observed. This complex geological structure offers complex hydrogeology. That serves heterogeneity and exciting groundwater study for hydrogeologists. In Turkey, two major groundwater resorvoirs. They are alluvial and karstified carbonate rock aquifers. Some hard rocks are significant aquifer in some areas. Alluvial quifers exist along coastal areas and pull-apart basins that is under tectonically controlled. Karstic areas cover approximately one-third of the Turkish terrority. There are 25 main river basins in Turkey. Konya Closed Basin (KCB) is the 4th largest basin with an area of 53850 km2. There are 36423 wells drilled by General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works (DSI) between 1952-2013 and 4285 (in operation) of them are in KCB. Meriç- Ergene basin is one of the 25 main river basins of Turkey. Ergene basin, located in Meriç- Ergene basin, has 7 sub-basins and has an area of 11000 km2. There are 545 (in operation) wells drilled by (DSI) in Ergene basin. Groundwater level measurements and evaluations are done by DSI. Groundwater level measurements are done in 2500 wells in Turkey. Monthly measurements have been carried out in 900 of them and the rest are observed seasonally. In the last 30-35 years, as a result of rapidly growing population, natural groundwater recharge areas have signifi cantly reduced due to encroachment by rapidly growing of industry and urbanization. With the lowering of groundwater levels, water quality problems have become conspicuous. In Konya Closed Basin, around Karapınar-Hotamış area, water table depths were 14.7 m and 43 m, respectively, in 1980 and 2014. Water table depths were 17 m and 60 m, respectively, in 1980 and 2014 around Lüleburgaz town in Ergene River Basin. In order to reverse this groundwater depth declining trend, Groundwater Law No. 167(since 1960) was amended in 2011. Finally, our aim is to install water measurement system in pumping wells, to modernize current irrigation systems, to encourage people as well as relevant stakeholders (irrigation cooperatives, NGOs, etc.) to save water and to train the people for sustainable groundwater use. Keywords: Groundwater Resources; Drawdown; Water Measurement System; Sustainable Groundwater Usage
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