Water is a basic necessity for human life, especially for use as drinking water, cooking food, washing, bathing and toilet facilities. Availability of water supply system is the part that should be prioritized to meet the needs of both urban and rural. Until now, the provision by governments face constraints, both human resources and other resources.
Keywords : clean-water, cross-tabulation, poor, odds-ratio, relative risk
One of the objectives in point 7 millennium development goals is to ensure environmental sustainability. In the points listed target to reduce the proportion of households without sustainable access to safe drinking water and adequate sanitation by half in 2015. Nowadays, relatively low access to drinking water reflects that rate of supply of drinking water infrastructure can not keep pace with population growth , in addition to plenty of drinking water infrastructure is not maintained and the management is not sustainable.
Conduct a study on the prevalence of drinking water consumption patterns of Indonesian households.
The data used are secondary data is the result of the national socioeconomic survey the third quarter of 2013 were collected by the BPS , Statistics Indonesia . Some other sources derived from the literature study helps refine the analysis in the study . Processing data using SPSS 13 software.
Sample of national socio-economic survey module consumption obtained by two-stage stratified sampling ( classification of rural / urban ) . The sampling frame used are of two types namely the selection of primary sample frame is a list of regular census block mapping in the 2010 population census . While the secondary sampling frame is a list of common household results in a block listing SP 2010 census . The sample size was set at 300,000 households . 75000 samples per quarter as an independent household and in 4 quarterly samples . The analytical method used is a cross-tabulation table and relative risk . Results are expected to be considered in the formulation of policies related to compliance with drinking water in Indonesia .
The availability of clean water as a source of drinking water for daily needs is one indicator of the health of the household. Poor households in Indonesia is only 46.87 percent who have enjoyed clean water as drinking water . Meanwhile poor households do not have access to clean water by 66.73 percent . Poor households in urban areas as much as 56.52 percent have access to clean water , while in rural areas only amounted to 41.44 percent . This indication shows that the provision of access to clean water to rural areas in order to be prioritized . Urban households 1.25 times easier access to clean water for drinking than in the countryside. Disparities prove that poor households have limited access to clean water supply as drinking water . Relative risk values of 0, 833 suggests that poor households 0,833 times relatively easy to get clean water than from the household that is not poor . Values less than 1 indicate that the non-poor households actually the one that is much easier to access clean water. Increasing income will secure an economic access for every single households to consume a clean water as well as the increasing odds ratio from the higher classes.
Head Count Index by water availability shows that 6.56 percent of households are considered poor of all households have the availability of clean water as drinking water . While 13.76 percent of households categorized as poor of all households are not able to provide clean water for drinking water . Figures head count index shows the percentage of poor people according to the availability of clean water indicates that the government plays an important role in building water supply for poor households .
Mapping the prevalence pattern of water consumption for drinking water is expected to be a material consideration in the provision of facilities to improve access to clean water as well as a variety of related policy formulation .
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3. Subdirectorate of Statistics Social Vulnerability . , 2013. Calculation and Analysis Macro Poverty 2013. Jakarta : BPS , Statistics Indonesia