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Hazardous Of Waste Water Irrigation On Quality Attributes And Contamination Of Citrus Fruits

Congress: 2015
Author(s): HUDA QARI (JEDDAH, South Africa)


Keyword(s): Sub-theme 9: Water allocation among competing uses and users,
AbstractThere is an increasing concern regarding the potential health risks associated with consuming crops grown on sewage irrigated soils. The present study was carried out to assess levels of different heavy metals like iron, manganese, copper and zinc, in citrus fruits irrigated with water from two places in Jeddah; namely Al Hada site (as a control) and Al Musk Lake (as a contaminated site). Analysis of heavy metals The elemental analysis was performed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) using IRIS Intrepid II XSP instrument. A sixpoint calibration procedure was applied with multi-element calibration solution (Merck ICP multi-element standard solution IV) (Hassan & Basahi, 2013). Statistical analysis The data of heavy metal concentrations in the plants at both sites were subjected to one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test, using STATGRAPHICS (Package 4) for assessing the significance of differences in heavy metal concentrations due to different irrigation practices. Least Significant Difference (LSD) was used to test the significance of differences between the concentrations of heavy metals in soil at wastewater (WW) and potable water irrigated (PW) sites. Moreover, the relationships between elemental concentrations in the fruits and the concentrations of heavy metals in wastewater and soil were assessed using correlation analysis. Heavy metal concentrations were several fold higher in all the collected samples (water, soils and fruits) from wastewater irrigated site compared to potable water irrigated ones. Fruits collected from contaminated soils had lower firmness (30% less that that collected from the reference site), while their size, weight and their soluble solids content (SSC) increased up to 3.5 cm in diameter, 22% and 14%, respectively. We found central axis of the orange fruits irrigated with wastewater was infected by the fungus Alternaria citri in the form of a rot, with hardly any external symptoms. Assessment of water and soils collected from Al Musk Lake indicated that they are not suitable for any uses. Moreover, these higher levels of metal pollution in the wastewater irrigated site presented a significant threat of negative impact on human health. 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