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Impact And Dynamics Of Effluents On Wetland Ecosystem And Its Management For Water Resources, Crop Productivity And Livelihoods Of Indian Rural Economy

Congress: 2015
Author(s): Anandamoy PUSTE (Mohanpur, Dist. Nadia, India), T.K MANDAL, D.K DAS, M DASGUPTA, K JANA, B.RAY PRAMANIK

Department of Agronomy, B.C.K.V., Mohanpur, Nadia1, Department of Agricultural Chemistry & Soil Science, B.C.K.V., Mohanpur, Nadia2, Department of Animal & Fishery Sciences, B.C.K.V., Mohanpur, Nadia 3, Department of Agriculture, Government of West Bengal4, Department of Agriculture, Government of West Bengal5



Keyword(s): Sub-theme 10: Management of water resources,
Abstract

Wetland has a pivotal role for maintaining its bio-diversity on which we greatly depend now, James (1985) rightly termed as 'Nature's kidney'. Wetlands including coastal biosphere comprises about 40.00 m ha (25-30%) that intersected with chains of rivers (The Ganges, Brahmaputa, Padma, Mahanadi, Mahananda etc.) in the country and it's tributaries (oxbow lakes - mauns, chaurs, jheels, beels, nayanjali - called locally). Wetlands are immense useful for cultivation of fish variables, food crops, integrated fish-crop diversity, and ultimately sustaining for economic stability to millions of people. Moreover, it preserved carboniferous environment as sources (fossil, fuels), sinks and transformers of a multitude of chemical, biological and genetic materials. But various thermal power and chemical plants and food/beverage industries produced larger amount of hazardous pollutants including particulate matter that polluted soil, water and environment in consequence in these greater agro-regions. These are faces huge losses, quality degradation, which drastically affected the poor and marginal group of rural farming communities in underdeveloped and developing countries, more specifically in north-eastern part of Indian sub-continent. Keeping with this in view, a series of field investigations were undertaken in different five agro-zones to address the situation-specific problem, hazardous as well as prospects on aqua-terrestrial ecosystem with its full exploitation, magnitude and diversity of input management and natural sources of these areas. Comprehensive field studies were undertaken during consecutive 4-5 years (2009-'10 to 2012-'13) at five sites near and far away from the industrial areas under new alluvial (NAZ), old alluvial (OAZ) and coastal eco-zones (CEZ) through Government sponsored research projects (ICAR, DoLR) of the emissions on the pond-soils, reflected on the soil and water characteristics, respectively. Soil and water samples were analyzed (AAS) following the standard method (Jackson, 1973). It is equally important to find out the related problems that prioritized before conducting experiment on wetland ecosystem in different sub-zones [SZ1 - Mohanpur (Nadia), SZ2 - Kalinarayanpur (Nadia) and SZ3 - Nabagram (Burdwan) under NAZ; SZ4 - Taldi (south 24 Parganas) under CEZ and SZ5 - Ahiron (Murshidabad) under OAZ, respectively] of West Bengal, India. Underutilized valuable and nutrient-rich aquatic food crops [water chestnut (Trapa bispinosa Roxb.), makhana (Euryale ferox Salisb.), water-lily (Nymphaea sp.), Colocasia, Cyrtosperma sp. etc.] were practiced as fish-crop integration following proper agro-techniques, as these have outyielding ability and remunerative, preferred by rural people. Some remedial as well as beneficial measures on wetland ecosystem were emphasized without any detrimental effects of such pollutants, particularly to promote systematically in cases as sole and/or integrated system, using IFS models on crop-fish diversity for enhancing productivity. Based on the market average price of the produces economic calculation were done, converted to standard equivalent yield expressed in MEY (makhana equivalent yield, t ha-1 time-1) for measuring loss or profitability of the system as well. It reveals from the analytical results, both soil characteristics like, suspended particulate matters (153 - 216 mg/M3), pH (6.1-7.0), organic carbon (0.64-0.84 g kg--1), CEC (12.92-18.29 Cmol (p+) kg--1), available S and NO3--N content (10.5-23.2 and 10.4-21.5 mg kg--1) and water characteristics like pH (5.8-7.3), BOD, COD, SO2--S, Cl-- and NO3-- (1.65-4.98, 0.61-5.34, 232-779, 191-587, 3.6-14.3 mg L--1, turbidity (3-21 JU), Cd and F-- (-0.002-0.19 and 0.28-1.25 mg L--1), respectively were remarkably influenced in relation to vicinity and away from the source of pollutants, indications comparatively less and worse affected due to factors leading in these study areas. Water containing a substantial amount of suspended particulate matters and other dissolve organic substances also affected its quality. The impact of remedial climatic change on crop geometry, been extended to be branded as enterprise geometry, has been perceived interim of changing crop mix (IFS, integrated farming system, cropping systems, multi-tier system using aqua-terrestrial ecosystem), enterprise synergy, patterning resource utilization (land, water and biodiversity) and ascribing three dimensional feature to crop management (field including system approaches, manipulations, nutrient and water management). The experiments have been successfully executed through polyhedral farming system and polymorphic enterprise combination as a whole. The study envisages that natural water resources can go on integrating temporal and spatial co-integration of fish-aquatic crops-orchards and unique approach of watershed plans for enhancing and upright production (t ha-1) of these agro-zones over a unique social ecology and land shaping intervention. This was exhibited positive outturn (B-C ratio ranged 1.72-3.71) due to wise use of natural resources without further degradation through augmented income, reached about 3.0 folds elasticity of the micro level economy that helped development of livelihoods in these greater regions. Global environment is solely balancing with land, water and its greater bio-diversity. Among the natural resources, wetland is an integral part and has a key and pivotal role for its balancing, should be highly exploitable for sustainability and livelihood development of mankinds. But wetlands are being polluted, somewhere intensely more due to natural and man-made causative factors - is an alarming threat to the nation, especially more focused in underdeveloped and developing countries. Moreover, a larger wetland area in north-eastern India is lying vacant, should effectively be utilized for the cultivation of valuable underutilized aquatic crops (food, food-cum-ornamental, non-food commercial, valuable medicinal) along with fish variables following scientific IFS, as it is not only valued for human beings but also imperative for augmenting spontaneous income for upliftment of resource-poor Indian rural economy, sustainable - who are inextricably linked with the rural ecosystem. Keywords: Agro-zones, crop geometry, fish-crop diversity, pollutants, productivity, rural sustainability, soil water characterization, water resource, wetland ecosystem

2011 IWRA - International Water Resources Association office@iwra.org - http://www.iwra.org - Admin