Congress Resources: Papers, posters and presentations

< Return to abstract list

Development Of Household Defluoridation Unit Based On Crushed Burnt Clay Pot As Sorbent Medium: A Case Of Keren Community, Eritrea

Congress: 2015
Author(s): Beraki Mehari (Keren, Eritrea), Beraki Bahre Mehari, Alfred O. Mayabi, Beatrice K. Kakoi
Hamelmalo Agricultural College1, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology2

Keyword(s): Sub-theme 1: Water supply and demand,
AbstractFluoride in water in some parts of Eritrea is above the WHO guideline of 1.5 mg/L. One of the communities in Eritrea exposed to drinking water of high fluoride is Keren community and as a result, they suffer dental and skeletal fluorosis. A survey at 16 water sources in 13 villages was made and 87% of the samples exceeded the guideline, having fluoride levels 1.40-3.98 mg/L. Fluoride removal from synthetic water using crushed burnt clay pot as a sorbent medium was studied in a packed column. A preliminary experiment was carried out on a laboratory scale in mini column, with three different packed beds, 15, 20 and 25 cm depth. A flow rate of 2.5, 5, 10, and 15 ml/min having 5 mg/L fluoride was passed through each bed. The results indicated that the breakthrough volume and time increased with increasing bed depth of the column. On the other hand, an increase in flow rate reduced the treated volume at breakthrough and therefore decreased the service time. Ideal breakthrough occurred at 25 cm bed depth at a flow rate of 2.5 ml/min with breakthrough volume 7.3 L, resulted in reduction of fluoride from 5 to 1.48 mg/L. The result of the mini column was scaled up and tested in a pilot scale unit. The pilot scale managed to treat 324 L of water satisfying the WHO standards of fluoride concentration. The performance of the pilot column agreed with that obtained from the mini column and therefore, crushed burnt clay pot is suitable low cost adsorbent to remove fluoride from water. Aksu, Z., & Gönen, F. (2004). Biosorption of Phenol by Immobilized Activated Sludge in a Continuous Packed Bed: Prediction of Breakthrough Curves. Process Biochem., 39, 599-613. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0032-9592(03)00132-8 APHA., AWWA., & W.E.F. (1995). Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (19th ed.). Washington, DC: Public Health Association, American Water Works Association and American Dental Association. Beraki, B. M. (2014). Investigation of Household Defluoridation of Water Using Local Materials as Sorbent Media: A case of Keren Community in Eritrea. MSc Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya. Christian, T. V., Henri, F., Catherine, P., & Yuh-Shan, H. (2005). Removal of lead (II) ions from synthetic and ream effluents using immobilized Pinus Sylvestris sawdust: Adsorption on a fixed bed column. J. Hazardous Material, 123, 135-144. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2005.03.032 Dahi, E., Mtalo, F., Njau, B., & Bregnhj, H. (1996). Defluoridation using Nalgonda Technique in Tanzania. 22nd WEDC Confr., New Delhi. Dissanayake, C. B. (1991). The Fluoride Problem in the Groundwater of Srilanka -Environmental Management and Health. Intl. J. Environ. Studies, 19, 195-203. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00207238208709990 Estifanos, H. (2005). Groundwater Chemistry and Recharge Rate in Crystalline Rock: Case Study from the Eritrean Highlands. M.Sc. Thesis, KTH Land and Water Resources Engineering, Sweden. Eyobel, M. D. (2006). Removal of Fluoride from Water Using Granular Aluminium Hydroxide: Adsorption in a Fixed Bed Column. M.Sc. Thesis, Environmental Science Program, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia. Jolly, S. S., Prasad, S., Sharma, R. & Rai, B. (1971). Human Fluoride Intoxication in Punjab, India. Fluoride, 4(2), 64-69. Ko Chun, K. D. (2002). Mass Transfer Modeling for Fixed-bed Sorption of Metal Ions on Bone Char. PhD., Thesis, the Hong Kong University Science and Technology, Hong Kong Manahan, S. E. (1994). Environmental chemistry (6th ed.). USA: Lewis publishers. Mayabi, A. O., Mutothia, F. U., & Kamau, G. (2009). An Assessment of Soil Materials in Kenya as Sorbent Media for Defluoridation of Water. Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice, 6(2), 39-49. Mayadevi, S. (1996). Adosrbent for Removal of Fluoride from Water. Ind. Chem. Eng., 38, 155-157. McKay, G. (1995). Use of Adsorbents for the Removal of Pollutants from Wastewaters. CRC Press, Boca Raton, New York, London and Tokyo. MLWE. (2007). National Adaptation Programme of Action. Ministry of Land, Water and Environment, Department of Environment (MWWE), Eritrea. Moges, G., Zwege, F., & Socher, M. (1996). Preliminary Investigations on the Defluoridation of Water Using Fired Clay Chips. J. African Earth Sci., 21, 479-482. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0899-5362(96)00030-9 Muller, K. (2007). CDN's Experiences in Integrating Social Aspects in Fluorosis Mitigation. Catholic Diocese of Nakuru, Water Quality. Reviewed by Peter Jacobsen, Kenya. Noriaki, A., & Kameru, J. G. (1988). Soil Testing Manual. Technical Coperation of Jomo Kenyatta University College of Agriculture and Technology. Pranab, K. R. (2004). Studies on Estimation of Fluoride and Defluoridation of Drinking Water. Master Thesis. Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, India. Reardon , E. J., & Wang, Y. (2000). A limestone Reactor for Fluoride Removal from Wastewater. Environment Sci. Tech., 34(15), 3247-3253. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es990542k Reimann, C., Bjorvatnb, K., Frengtsada, B., Melakuc, Z., Tekle-Haimanot, R., & Siewersd, U. (2003). Drinking Water Quality in the Ethiopian Section of the East African Rift Valley I- data and health aspects. Journal of the Science of the Total Environment, 311, 65-80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0048-9697(03)00137-2 Sajidu, S. M. I., Masamba, W. R. L., Thole, B., & Mwatseteza, J. F. (2008). Groundwater Fluoride Levels in Villages of Southern Malawi and Removal Studies using Bauxite. Intnl. J. of Physical Sci., 3(1), 1-11. Srikanth, R., Viswanatham, K. S., Kahsai, F., Fisahatsion, A., & Asmellash, M. (2002). Fluoride in Groundwater in Selected Villages in Eritrea. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 75(2), 169-177. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1014491915537 Tekle-Haimanot, A. F., Bushera, B., & Mekonnen, Y. (1995). Fluoride Levels in Water and Endemic Fluorosis in Ethiopian Rift Valley. 1st International Workshop on Fluorosis Prevention and Defluoridation of Water, Ngurdoto, Tanzania, The International Society for Fluoride Research. Ethiopian Rift. Tembhurkar, A. R., & Dongre, S. (2006). Studies of Fluoride Removal Using Adsorption Process. Journal of Environ. Sci. & Eng., 48(3), 151-156. UNICEF. (1999). UNICEF’s Position on Fluoridation. A UNICEF Publication on Water, Environment, Sanitation and Hygiene. Issue 13. Wang, R., Li, H. N., & Wang, Y. (1995). Study of New Adsorbents for Fluoride Removal From Waters. Water Qual. Res. J. Canada, 30, 81-88. WHO. (1984). Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. World Health Organization, Geneva, 1(2). WHO. (1994). Expert Committee on Oral Health Status and Fluoride Use: Fluorides and oral health. World Health Organization, Geneva, Technical Report Series, p. 846. WHO. (2006). Fluoride in Drinking-Water. Published by IWA Publishing, London, UK. World Health Organization. Yoseph, A. W. (2007). Fluoride Removal From Water With Aluminium Oxide Hydroxide: A Pilot Study For Household Application. M.Sc. Thesis, Environmental Science Program, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia. Zerai, H. (1996). Groundwater and Geothermal Resources of Eritrea with the Emphasis on Their Chemical Quality. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 22(4), 415-421. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0899-5362(96)00028-0
2011 IWRA - International Water Resources Association office@iwra.org - http://www.iwra.org - Admin