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To Measure The Water Poverty Index In Urban Slum Of Gadap Town Karachi

Congress: 2015
Author(s): Rubina Jaffri (City)


Keyword(s): Sub-theme 7: Global challenges for water governance,
AbstractIntroduction Karachi's increasingly complex water and sanitation challenges demonstrate the problems of rapid urbanization in developing nations already found under water stress and scarcity. To ensure Access to safe drinking Water services to 134,900 people in urban slums of Gadap Town, Karachi Pakistan, HANDS, leading NGO of Pakistan launched a five year project with the funding support of Water AID (INGO). HANDS is implementing the project by laying of drinking water line, rehabilitation and development of water filter plants, upgradation of pumping stations and mass mobilization advocacy through involvement of public sector. Method & Material: For the baseline Water Poverty Index (WPI) is defined as "a new holistic tool to contribute to more effective water management. It combines data on local water resources, access, use, social and economic capacity and water-related environmental quality to be used by local people and water development agencies to monitor progress in the provision of water at the community level. WPI is to express an interdisciplinary measure which links household welfare with water availability and indicates the degree to which water scarcity impacts on human populations of project area. The WPI was constructed from household data of the three selected UCs of Gadap Town and provides a simple and easy-tool to-use for identification of poverty pockets for management and planning of resources in the resource poor areas. Result & Discussion: Results show that Gujro (UC 4) is more deprived in water resource and water access. Therefore, the Issue of water availability and access to safe drinking water and sanitation are more deprived area that need to be worked out on priority in this UC. Maymarabad (UC 6) is more deprived in capacity of water management. The threshold defines Gujro in extreme water poverty. Both demand side and supply side measures are required to improve the capacity, access and resources of water in project area. The analysis further divides into demand and supply side component of water management. This response component captures the factors associated with response of residents of area to water resource and management.. The concept of water poverty is assumed to be a function of physical availability of water resources (R), extent of access to water (A), Capacity to manage water (C), ways in which water is used for different purposes (U), and the need to allocate water for ecological services (E). WPI Components Resources: The 'Resource' component measures availability of water resources. The increase in population the population educational level puts greater pressure on water resources, and it has been taken as the Pressure parameter. Access: Access was evaluated with percentages of population have access to safe water, percentages of population have access to sanitation, and percentage of population has improved water resource and time to collect water. Capacity: The water sector institutional capacity also consider for this purpose. Use: The 'Use' component focuses on the consumption of water in households. Environment: PI in addition to quick diagnosis of the population clusters and water resources provide links between Resources, Access, Capacity, Use and Environment. Conclusions The WPI can be used as tool to provide assistance the community in general and the local officials in particular for water resource management at public and community level. WPI helps to understand the dynamics of the local areas, socio-economic conditions of the population and identification & intensity of these problems. These indexes enable quick identification of areas and population clusters for analysis of water situation as well as in-depth and comprehensive understanding the constraints in these clusters. The WPI of different UCs showing almost same result, different conclusions can be achieved if a thorough analysis is done focusing either on the five components of the index or on a specific position within the causal chain. It highlights the fact that "when observed separately the indicators offer a good view of the situation in that field; and when merged into one component, more information may be lost than gained" (Komnenic, 2007). But in comparative analysis of panels, large cities show high water poverty which may be due to the high population density in these areas. The results lead to the conclusion that there is a need of a proper and thorough planning to manage water resources and water demand within the cities.
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