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Low --cost Adsorbents For Water And Wastewater Treatment

Congress: 2015
Author(s): M. Rashed (Aswan, Egypt), M. RASHED
Aswan University1

Keyword(s): Sub-theme 13: Non-conventional sources of water,
AbstractIntroduction Developing countries suffer from water pollution with both organic and inorganic pollutants. Heavy metal pollution is a major environmental concern because of its toxicity to humans, water, soil, animals and plants. The high cost of water and wastewater treatments makes the major problems in developing countries. Search for a low cost alternative, reveals that utilizing materials significantly reduce the high cost. Adsorption is now recognized as an effective and economic method for treatment of pollutants in water and wastewater. The adsorption process offers flexibility in design and operation and in many cases will produce high-quality treated effluent. In addition, because adsorption is sometimes reversible, adsorbents can be regenerated by suitable desorption process. Extensive researches have been carried out during the last 15 years to find low cost, high capacity adsorbents for the removal of metal ions. It included activated carbons, bone charcoal, sewage sludge, industrial sludge, fly ash, peat, coal, chitosan and natural minerals (bentonite, clays, goethite and kaolin). This paper aims to prepare low cost adsorbent from the solid wastes of cow and chicken bones as undesirable wastes, and used it for the treatment and removal of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn) from polluted water and wastewater. Materials and Methods Cow and chicken bones were collected from local butchers shop and chicken sacrifice in Aswan city. Bones were cleaned from meat and cut by circular saw to pieces. Subsequently, bones were boiled in distilled water for 2 h, in order to remove fat, and then washed with tap and bidistilled water several times. The bones were then transferred to the oven for drying at 105 °C. The dried bones were crushed and grinded to a size particle of 100 μm. The dried samples were pyrolysed in muffle furnace at temperatures 400, 600, 800, 900 °C (BA400, BA600 ,BA800 & BA900) for 4 hr, cooled, grinded again and stored in plastic bottles for further experiments. Bone adsorbents were characterized by FT-IR, XRD, SEM--EDX, and BET. Metal concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The removal efficiency of the adsorbent was investigated as a function of pH (2, 5, 7 & 9), contact time (0.5, 1, 3 and 5 hr), initial metal concentration (25, 50, 100 & 200 ppm), temperature (25, 30, 40 & 50°C), and adsorbent dose (0.5, 1, 3 &5 gm). Results and Duscussion In the study of bones activated at different temperatures it was found that specific area generated was the greatest at 800°C. Also, the results of initial metal concentrations effect (Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn) reveal the high metal removal with bone adsorbent BA800. The removal of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn ions by various bone adsorbents as a function of contact time indicated that the amounts of metal sorbed increased with an increase in contact time and gradually reached constant values within 5 h. Optimal metal adsorption was obtained in the wide initial pH range 4--8, and with 2 gm/100ml adsorbent dose. Application of Langmuir, Freundlich and Scatchard isotherm models showed that the adsorption data of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn fitted well. Conclusion To finding out low cost and effective adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals from polluted water the cow and chicken bones were effectively activated to activated carbon. Both the prepared adsorbents (cow and chicken at 800°C) were effectively used for the removal of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn from polluted water and wastewater at suitable conditions of pH, contact time, adsorbent dose and temperature. This new prepared low cost adsorbents are suitable to be used in developing countries. 1- Dimovi S. , I. Smiciklas, I. Plecas, D. Antonovi , M. Mitrica(2009). Comparative study of differently treated animal bones for Co2+ removal, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 164 , 279--287. 2- Juan Carlos Moreno, Rigoberto Gómez and Liliana Giraldo (2010). Removal of Mn, Fe, Ni and Cu Ions from Wastewater Using Cow Bone Charcoal. Materials, 3, 452-466. 3-Hanna Modina, Kenneth M. Perssona, Anna Anderssonb, Martijn van Praaghc(2011). Removal of metals from landfill leachate by sorption to activated carbon, bone meal and iron fines. Journal of Hazardous Materials 189, 749--754. 4 Moreno-pirajan J., R.Gomes-ruz,V.S.GARCIa-Cuello,L Giraldo(2010). Binary system Cu(II)/Pb(II) adsorption on activated carbon obtained by pyrolysis of cow bone study. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 89, 122--128.
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