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Impact Of Urbanization On Water Resources : Case Study Of Jaipur

Congress: 2015
Author(s): Kamal Narain Joshi
Institute of Development Studies1

Keyword(s): Sub-theme 2: Surface water and groundwater,
AbstractIncreasing pressure of population and industrialization has threatened the quality and quantity of water resources in and around urban areas. Protecting surface water resources like lakes, rivers, streams, and ponds etc in the vicinity of urban area has become a very difficult task for urban planner and administrators. The haphazard growth of colonies, slum squatters and unplanned land use has not only broken down the natural flow of hydrological net work but also deteriorate the quality of water that directly affects health of people. Space technology together with geographical information system has provided new opportunity to analyze the problem and provide appropriate solution in cost and time effective manner. The present paper investigates that how the urbanization and industrialization has changed urban land use of Jaipur urban Agglomerate which ultimately affected the surface water bodies and reduced the recharge area of ground water. The changing rainfall pattern due to possible climate change has exaggerated the situation. The study has been carried out with the help of Indian remote sensing satellite data and GIS techniques. During the course of study a number of thematic maps covering hydro-geomorphology, geology, water bodies, land use, soil etc. have been prepared and analyzed. In addition various attributes on climatic parameters and anthropogenic activities have been put together with these maps in GIS environment for integration to depict the changes and its impact on water resources vis-à-vis land use. It was found that increasing pressure of population and un-systematic anthropogenic activities have made negative impact on water resources. It encroached upon lakes, rivers, streams, and ponds etc in the vicinity of urban area. As a result, out of total 518 rivulets in urban area and surrounding, 13 first order , 37 second order and 10 are of third order stream are completely blocked by settlements (Total 60). Out of 2600 wells, 1116 well/tube wells have completely stopped recharging due to increase in pavement area between years 1986 to 2007. Seven fresh water reservoirs have dried-up which was supplying drinking water to Jaipur city. The surface drainage network of rain water has been converted into municipal sewerage. Local source of water supply from surface as well as ground is closed due to scarcity of water. Recharge of ground water has stopped due to increased pavement area for urban development like infrastructure development, industrial development and other urban development activities. On the other hand Average annual number of rainy days has been reduced from 35 to 28 days in last 25 years. *15 years out of 30 years (1080 - 2010) have received less than average (650 mm) rainfall. Average number of days having High temperature has increased Suggestion s for policy makers * The natural drainage system should be kept intact and free from encroachments so that the area could be saved from flood. * Common property resources including pastures and water bodies should be kept reserve to recharge the ground water. * Natural drainage and low lying area and lineaments should be protected for ground water recharge. * Forest around urban area should be protected and keep free from encroachment. • Arora. R.K. et al: (1978) "Jaipur: Profile of a changing city." Prashasnika Vol. W no. 1-2. • Deckshatulu. B.L.. 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