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Desalination Integration With Renewable Energy For Climate Change Abatement In Mena Region

Congress: 2015
Author(s): Eman Salama (El Kanater, Egypt)

Keyword(s): Sub-theme 13: Non-conventional sources of water,

The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is considered the most water-scarce region in the world. Renewable energy has tremendous potential to provide energy security and reduce green houses gases emissions in MENA. Renewable energies for use in desalination processes include wind, solar thermal, photovoltaic and geothermal. The objective of this research is to review and select the best choice of desalination technology combination with renewable solar energy in MENA region, among different alternatives systems using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). The alternative systems are Solar still, Solar Humidification (Solar--MHE), Concentrating Solar Plant -- Multi Effect Desalination (CSP-MED), Photovoltaic Reverse Osmosis (PV-RO) and Photovoltaic Electodyalsis Reverse (PV- EDR). Energy demand, capacity of desalination plant (m3/day), cost of produced water (USD/m3), volume of saline water per m3 fresh water, volume of brine effluents per m3 of fresh water and cost of brine disposal (USD/m3) are the criteria that have been taken into consideration in the process of analysis. A specific weight is given to each criterion according to its relative influence on the process of decision making. The results from the presented methodology determine the relative suitability of renewable energy desalination systems in MENA. Al-Karaghouli AA. Kazmerski LL.2011. Desalination, Trends and Technologies, Michael Schorr (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-307-311-8. Renewable Energy Opportunities in Water Desalination, P: 149-184. Available from: AL Mobayed AA, Balaji S.2005. Successful Operation of Pretreatment in Al-Jubail SWRO Plant. IDA World Congress on Desalination & Water Reuse Conference. USA. Al-Shammiri M, Safar M.1999. Multi-effect distillation plants: State of the art. Desalination, 126:45-59. Buros OK. 2000. The ABCs of Desalting, 2nd ed. ASIN: B0006S2DHY, International Desalination Association. Greenlee L F, Lawler D F, Freeman, B D, Marrot B. and Moulin P. 2009. “Reverse Osmosis Desalination: Water Sources, Technology, and Today’s Challenges.” Water Res. May 43 (9): 2317-48. Halcrow Water Services 2007. Multi Stage Flash, Available from: IEA-ETSAP and IRENA 2012. Water Desalination Using Renewable Energy Technology Brief. Available from: Kalogirou S.A.2005. Seawater desalination using renewable energy sources, Energy & Combustion Science 31, 242–281. Khawaji AD, Kutubkhanah IK & Wie J-M.2007. "A 13.3 MGD seawater RO desalination plant for Yanbu Industrial City". Desalination 203: 176–88. Mahmoud MM, Ibrik IH.2006. Techno-economic feasibility of energy supply of remote villages in Palestine by PV-systems, diesel generators and electric grid. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 10:128–38. MEDRC R&D Report 2002. A comprehensive study of solar desalination with a humidification-dehumidification cycle, ZAE Bayern, Munich, Germany. Miller J.2003. Review of Water Resources and Desalination Technologies. Materials Chemistry Department, Sandia National Laboratories. Available from: Papapetrou M, Wieghaus M, Biercampi Ch.2010. Roadmap for the development of desalination powered by renewable energy. Promotion of renewable energy for water production through desalination. PRODES Project, ISBN 978-3-8396-0147-1. PRODES (PROmotion of Renewable Energy for Water Production through DESalination) 2010. “Global Renewable Energy Desalination by Energy Source,” ProDes, Available from: Rinner C. 2007. A geographic visualization approach to multi-criteria evaluation of urban quality of life. Geographical Information Science 21(8):907–919. Saaty TL.2008. Decision making for leaders: the analytic hierarchy process for decisions in a complex world. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: RWS Publications. Solar Millennium 2011. “Parabolic Trough Power Plant with Thermal Storage" Solar Millennium AG, Available from: Sözen. S. Teksoy.S. 2008. ADRIA HANDBOOK , Autonomous Desalination system concepts for sweater and brackish water In Rural Areas with renewable energies - Potential, Technologies, Field Experience, Socio–technical and Socio-economic impacts, A guide to autonomous desalination system concept. Conceptual Framework of ADS and RES. MDEA WATER Co-funded by the European Union, P: 1-7. Wangnick K. 2000. IDA worldwide desalting plants inventory: report No. 16. Wangnick Consulting for the International Desalination Association. World Bank 2012. MENA Development Report. Renewable Energy Desalination. An Emerging Solution to Close the Water Gap in the Middle East and North Africa. Available from: World Bank 2004. Seawater and Brackish Water Desalination in the Middle East, North Africa and Central Asia: A Review of Key Issues and Experiences in Six Countries. Final and Main Report, prepared by a consortium of consultants, consisting of DHV Water BV, Amersfoort, the Netherlands, and BRL Ingénierie, Nimes, France. Available from: Resources/Desal_mainreport-Final2.pdf.

2011 IWRA - International Water Resources Association - - Admin