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Methylene Blue Adsorption From Aqueous Solution By Raw Eucalyptus Bark

Congress: 2015
Author(s): Sharmeen Afroze (Perth, Australia), Tushar Sen, Ming Ang, Hiroshi Nishioka
Curtin University1, University of Hyogo2

Keyword(s): Sub-theme 6: Links with the energy, food and environmental sectors,
AbstractSharmeen Afroze*a, Tushar Kanti Sena, Ming Anga, Hiroshi Nishiokab
aDepartment of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University,
GPO Box U1987, Perth, Western Australia 6845, Australia.
bGraduate School of Engineering, University of Hyogo,
2167 Shosha, Himeji-shi, Hyogo 671-2280, Japan
*Corresponding author email address: sharmeen.afroze@postgrad.curtin.edu.au

Introduction - Excessive release of inorganic/organic pollutants into water due to industrialization, agricultural operations and urbanization has posed a great environmental problem worldwide. Methylene Blue (MB); a cationic dye is most commonly used for coloring and also used in microbiology, surgery, diagnostics [1, 2]. Though this dye is not strongly hazardous, acute exposure to methylene blue can cause increased heart rate, shock, Heinz body formation, cyanosis, jaundice, quadriplegia, and tissue necrosis in humans [3]. Methylene Blue causes eye burns which may be responsible for permanent injury to the eyes of human and animals [4]. Hence, the treatment of effluents containing such dye is of interest due to its harmful impacts on receiving waters. Commercial activated carbon has been successfully used in the removal of inorganics/organics from their aqueous phase. However, utilization of commercial activated carbon possesses limitation because of their high cost and regeneration problem. Therefore the current research is focused in finding a cost effective and efficient adsorbent in comparison to activated carbon [5-7]. There are only few reported works on the application of Eucalyptus Bark biomass as an effective adsorbent and mostly limited towards inorganic removal [8-14]. Therefore, this research work was undertaken to evaluate the adsorption potential of naturally available, low cost material, raw Eucalyptus Bark biomass, to remove organic Methylene Blue (MB) dye from its aqueous solutions. Further, large amount of salts and surfactant are utilized in the dyeing process and there should be an effect of dissolved and mixed salt concentration and surfactant combination on the adsorption capacity of biomass. Therefore, mixed salt effect and surfactant effect on MB dye adsorption which is further new aspect of this study has also been presented here.

Materials - Eucalyptus trees, which are evergreen and one type of lignocellulose carbonaceous material form about three-quarters of the tree flora of Australia. They are fast growing and abundantly available worldwide. For this project, eucalyptus barks were collected from Curtin University -- Bentley campus, Western Australia, washed repeatedly, dried at 105˚C for 24 h in an oven and ground to make 105 µm sizes and used for analysis as well as for conducting adsorption experiments. A stock solution of 1000 mg/L MB (C16H18N3SCl.3H2O with a molecular weight of 319.86 g/mol) was prepared by dissolving the appropriate amount (1000 mg) of MB in a litre of ultra-pure water. The working solutions were prepared by diluting the stock solution with ultra-pure water to give the appropriate concentration of the working solutions. Similarly, solutions of 100 mg/L, 200 mg/L and 300 mg/L were prepared by dissolving the appropriate amount of laboratory grade NaCl, CaCl2 and FeCl3 separately in a litre of ultra-pure water to perform experiments with salt effects. Triton X-100 (Average Mol. wt. 625, purity < = 100%) was used as non-ionic surfactant.

Methods - Batch adsorption experiments were conducted by varying the initial solution pH, initial dye concentration, salts, mixed dye concentrations, surfactant and temperature at predetermined time intervals. These adsorption batch experiments were conducted as per our earlier published method [4].

Results and Discussions - Characterization of Eucalyptus Bark biomass was done via FTIR, and by using SEM and TEM technology. Surface chemistry of Eucalyptus Bark (EB) such as specific surface area, pore volume distribution, surface weighted mean particle size and pore size were measured and physical characteristics of this biomass such as bulk density, percentage of elemental analysis (nitrogen, carbon and hydrogen) were also done. Potential of Eucalyptus Bark biomass for adsorption of MB dye from its aqueous solution was found to be excellent. Significant effect on adsorption was witnessed on varying the pH of the Methylene Blue solutions. Results showed that the optimum pH lies between 7.4 and 10.0. The extent (%) of Methylene Blue adsorption from aqueous solution decreased with the increase in the initial MB dye concentration, but increased with rise in temperature. The extent of MB dye adsorption was found to be enhanced due to increase of salts concentration. This is because of salting out effect which comprises the changes of various short range forces. The overall kinetic studies showed that the MB dye adsorption by Eucalyptus Bark biomass followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. The mechanism of MB dye adsorption was analysed by intraparticle diffusion model. The maximum Langmuir monolayer adsorption capacity of raw Eucalyptus Bark for MB dye was found to be 204.08 mg/g at 30C.

Conclusion - The adsorption equilibrium was reached within 140 min. MB dye adsorption process followed pseudo-second order kinetic model and the adsorption was controlled by chemisorption process. Along with the results mentioned above, the core findings are:

* Methylene Blue (MB) dye adsorption on Eucalyptus Bark was found to decrease in addition of non-ionic surfactant.

* Presence of monovalent, divalent and trivalent salts in the MB dye solution enhanced the removal efficiency of eucalyptus bark biomass.

* The adsorption process is endothermic, irreversible and spontaneous in nature.

The results obtained suggest a promising future inexpensive raw Eucalyptus Bark biomass as a novel adsorbent and a better alternative to other expensive adsorbents used for Methylene Blue dye removal from dye bearing effluents. 1. Milani, A., Ciammella, A., Degen, C., Siciliano, M. and Rossi, L. (1992) Ascites dynamics in cirrhosis: Proposal and validation of a methylene blue dilution test. J. Hepatol. 16(3), 369-375.
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