Author: Pankaj Sampat
Guide: Dr. Y. K. Alagh
1. Introducing the case:
Literature review summary shows that- Fresh water scarcity, supply cost and recovery, judicious use, citizen rights and other stake holders requirement to know the information on the water supply management are major drivers which leads ULB to the circumstances to enhance domestic water supply system for optimum and judicious use of water as natural resources in a cost effective manner. A solution may be the simultaneous functioning of market for water working and rationing system. Such system could be designed based on quantified supply. Quantification could be done by tabulation or accounting method. Very few cities are practicing Tabulation method sincerely. Water accounting method is in its infant stage and very limited information is available in literature. So, it requires exploratory work and a systematic study on the quantification methods to understand how to develop and practice it.
'Quantification' is a concept based solution which can meet the ULB requirements but its implementation requires system reforms and scientific knowledge to put it in to practice for the cities having metered or non-metered water supply arrangements. This concept should be tested before use.
Measurements are necessary requirement for 'Quantification'. Wherever accurate metered measurements are not available or it is costly, estimated measurements can be used for accounting with reference to the reliability scale. This is meaningful and serves the purpose. Water meters have also limitations of errors and accuracy levels. To develop Metered system is costly; require much time, political will and social acceptance. The reality at present in 2013 is that very few Indian cities that have developed 100% metering facility. This reality demands for alternative methods other than metering for 'Quantification'. Thus, it is very important to know about the role of metering, its limitations and linkages with other aspects of 'Quantification'. But literature review throws limited light on this role in relation with the concept. Therefore, it requires exploratory study on roll of metering and its linkages with 'Quantification'.
Further, Water accounting is adopted as quantification practice in line with financial accounting at basin level linked with national economy by countries like Australia, America, Spain, China and Africa except India. Very little information is available on quantification by water accounting method particularly for domestic water supply system. Further, neither literature nor field experience has clarity in the area of water accounting practice and its implementation for non-metered city. This requires a conceptual framework suitable for water accounting practice.
NWF Bill 2013, India, shall give legal status to draft NWP 2012. This will legally enforce State and ULB to start practice for water accounting, auditing and publishing the reports. This legal enforcement shall require reforms at ULB level supported by State policy with financial support for developing the system as Market in co-ordination with private sector.
This study covers Roll of metering and its linkages with 'Quantification' by case study of two large cities, conceptual frame work is developed. It was tested by creating a sample water account. This study addresses the issues and challenges discussed above to meet the developmental aspects to make domestic water supply system more efficient, optimum use of resource in a sustainable manner.
Aim is to study developmental aspects and develop conceptual 'Quantification' framework for domestic water supply system in the Indian context based on financial accounting and auditing principles.
1. To develop an approach how to quantify domestic water supply. 2. To identify which are the planning issues and work out possible solutions. 3. To develop a sample water account to quantify domestic water supply system for demonstration purpose.
2. Methods and Material Used:
This study doesn't amount to a simple exercise, but explains at length and breadth how 'Quantification' and 'Metering' are co-related. It is also reinforced by the expert interviews, focus group presentation and two case studies included in the report and based on them; it explains what are the issues and possible solutions and what reforms are necessary for the system improvement.
3. Contribution of this Study:
The thrust of this study is that the domestic water supply sector is facing challenges of Quantification that cannot be addressed in the current ULB practice and State policy frame work. Reform is not only to include re-orientation of present Practices & Policy, but also in the restructuring of the system as multi disciplinary system supported by proper planning.
It is also demonstrated that how water accounting can be done similar to financial accounting in the current ULB set up. What are the limitations and cautions required while putting it in to practice.
Planning Issues are addressed by possible solutions and recommendations are given best to suit implementation requirements in time line.
To make a practical contribution to domestic water supply system, I suggest focusing this analysis to introduce 'Water Accounting' in a phased manner, first at bulk water distribution at city level and second at user level. Following the study above, I suggest that a multidisciplinary approach is essential to bring efficiency in domestic water supply and it could be right direction for future.
This research demonstrates how an active management with optimisation approach can be used to improve the transparency and efficiency of the system. The novelty of this approach is 'Quantification' can be done for both metered and non-metered domestic water supply system. Ahluwalia-2011, D. I. (2011). High Powered Expert Committee,29th September 2011.GoI. Goverment research. Anitha Sampath2005. (2005). Water Privatization and Implications in India. Austin: Association for IndiaÂ’s Development, 1 University Station A6220, SOC #108, Austin, TX, 78712 USA. Anjal Prakash-2005. (2005). Political Economy of Ground Water Governance in Gujarat: A Micro Level Analysis. In V. Ballabh (Ed.). Arregui F.J.1, M. P., J.C., P., & J., S. (n.d.). Quantification Of Meter Errors Of Domestic Users:A Case Study-. Institute for water technology. Universidad Politecnica de Valencia.Valencia,Spain. Spain: Universidad Politecnica de Valencia.Valencia,Spain. Retrieved july 15, 2011, from email@example.com. AustralianBureau-of-Statistics. (2000). Australia Water Account. In A. B. statistics. (Ed.), Subregional Training Workshop on Environmental Statistics, (p. 28). Bangkok: Australian Bureau of statistics,Sydeny. Blanca Jimenez, B. E. (2008). Water Reuse: An International Survey Of Current Practice, Issues and Needs. London: IWA Publishing. Blanca Jimenez-2008, B. E. (2008). Water Reuse: An International Survey Of Current Practice, Issues and Needs. London: IWA Publishing. Bruggen-2010, B. d. (2010). Chapter -3 The Global Water Recycling Situation of ' Sustainable Water for the Future: Water Recyclling versus Desalination'. London: IWA-UK. CDP Ahmedabad - CEPT University. (2007). CDP Ahmedabad. Ahmedabad: Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation. Changodar Master Plan-CEPT University. (2011). Changodar Master Plan. Ahmedabad: CEPT Uni. David Seckler, U. A. (1998). World Water Demand and Supply,1990 to 2025: Scenarios and Issues. IWMI. P O Box 2075, Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute. Retrieved from http: //www.cgiar.org/iimi DavidMoldan. (1997). Accounting for water use and Productivity. Colombo: IIMI. DirectorofMunicipalities. (2011). Quantification of NRW in ULBs-2010 Manual. Quantification of NRW in ULBs-2010 Manual. Bengaluru, Karnataka, India: Director of Municipalities, GoK. Dr.LisaLowe. (2009). Accounting for Water. Melbourne: Melbourne University. Dr.Y.K.Alagh. (2002). More on Most. In H. J. Ruijter (Ed.), National Unesco Commission (p. 104). Kortenaerkade 11, The Hague.: National Unesco Commission. Dr.Y.K.Alagh. (2013). Report Of The Committee For Drafting Of National Water Framework Law. New Delhi: Ministry Of Water Resources, Goverment Of India. Retrieved 2013 Dr.Y.K.Alagh. (n.d.). Planning Water Scenerios. Retrieved May 12, 2013, from http://nrlp.iwmi.org/PDocs/pres/inc/04_%20Planning%20Water%20Scenarios%20-%20YK%20Alagh.ppt. EdwardTelloMelendez^&JamesHazelton. (2012). Improving Water Information Through Standardised Water Accounting: Australian Evidence. Sydeny. European Business and Technology Center. (2011). INDIA--EU: Creating Market Alliances. New Delhi: EBTC (New Delhi) Head Office. FalkenmarkMalin. (1991). G.S.Bajwa. (2003). Practical Handbook on Public Health Engineering (Vol. One). Shimla, Jammu & Kashmir, India: DEEP Publishers. Hespanhol., I. (2008, June 23). A New Paradigm for Water Resource Management. (T. b. Doyle., Ed.) Retrieved 2012, from http://www.scielo.b: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_issuetoc&pid=0103-401420080002&lng=pt&nrm=iso. Huger-Germany-2010. (2010). Water and Waste Water company booklet. Germany: Huger. Huger-Germany-2011. (2010). Water and Waste Water company booklet. Germany: Huger. IDFC-2011. (2011). INDIA INFRASRUCTURE REPORT 2011 WATER: Policy and Performance for Sustainable Development. New Delhi-India: OXFORD University Press. IndiaInfrastructure. (2013). Water Industry, Directory and Year Book 2012-13. New Delhi, New Delhi, India: India InfrastructurePublishing. Industries Department-GoG. (2008). Industries Report -2007. Gandhinagar: Industries Commissioner-GoG. iulio Boccaletti, M. K.-M. (2009). "Charting Our Water Future" : Economic Frameworks to inform decision-making. New Delhi: McKinsey & Company. Jayn MGodfrey & KerynChalmers. (2012). Water Accounting. JoergKoelbl. (2009). Process Benchmarking in Water Supply Sector: Management of Physical Water Losses-. Graz: University of Technology. Lee Addams, G. B. (2009). 2030 World Water group report. McKinsey & Company. McKinsey & Company. Retrieved from www.mckinsey.com/water M. Fantozzi, A. C. (2008). Investigations into Under-Registration of Customer Meters, Palermo (Italy) and the Effect of Introducing UFR. . Palermo (Italy). Retrieved from www.leakssuite.com MelbourneUniversity. (2009). Addressing uncertainties in water accounting;. In D. o. Engineering (Ed.), 18th World IMACS / MODSIM Congress, (p. 7). Melbourne: Melbourne University, Australia. Retrieved 2012, from http://mssanz.org.au/modsim09 METCALF-EDDY-2010. (2010). Wastewater Engineering Treatment and Reuse. India: TATA McGRAW-Hill Edition. MunicipalFinanceOfficers. (1970). Water Utility Accounting. Newyork: Municipal Finance Officers Association-U.S. & Canada, A.W.A.- Leon E. Hay and D.J. Grinnell. Murni Po 2004, J. K. (2004). Literature Review of factors influencing public perceptions of water reuse. Sydeny: CSIRO Land and Water, Australia. N. Latha-2003, N. D. (2003). Â‘Wastewater Reuse in Megacities - Emerging Trends in Bengaluru cityÂ’ . Bengaluru: Ecological Economics Unit, Istitue of Social and Economic Change. National Water Mission-2008, G. (Dec.2008). National Water Mission:under National Action Plan on climate change draft report Volume II. New Delhi: GOI. NationalWaterPolicy2012(Draft)-MoWR. (2013). NationalWaterPolicy2012(Draft). NewDelhi: MoEF-GOI. O.P.SinghandUpaliAmarsinghe. (n.d.). Changing Consumption Patterns Food and Feed demand projections. PeterPMolinga. (2005). The Water Resorce Plicy Process in India: Centralisation, Polarisation & New Demands on Governance. In V. Ballabh (Ed.). Shah Tushaar-2005. (2005). Governing the Ground Water Economy. In V. Ballabh (Ed.). SharonYaniv. (n.d.). Reduction of Apparent Losses Using the UFR Case Studies. Isreal: A.R.I Flow Control Accessories, Kfar Charuv, 12932, Israel, 972-4-6761612, . Retrieved 2012, from Sharon@ari.co.il Tata Stratagic Managment Group, S. S. (2011). Partnership For Sustainable Water Management-Water Seminar & Gujarat Water Summit 2011. Ahmedabad: CII-Confederation of Indian Industries. TeriEtchells-LisaLowe-BradPotter-NasserSpear. (n.d.). Water Resource Accounting. Melbourne: University of Melbourne National Institute of Accounts. TushaarShah. (2005). The New Institutional Economics of IndiaÂ’s Water Policy. Anand: Ballabh Vishwa. UpaliAmarsingheTusharShah. (2007). IndiaÂ’s Water Futures to 2025/2050: BAU Scenario. COLOMBO: IWMI. WATTSBARUtility. (2009). UFR Pilot summary, published by WATTSBAR Utility. WATTSBAR: WATTSBAR Utility. (n.d.). World Water Development Report-3. Research.