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The Effectiveness Of Iwrm As A Tool For Poverty Reduction In Ldcs

Congress: 2015
Author(s): Michael Davidson (Altadena, USA), Michael Davidson, Michael Davidson
Davidson Consultants1

Keyword(s): Sub-theme 8: Revisiting water paradigms,
AbstractINTRODUCTION Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) was established for the purpose of integrating all water sectors into a holistic framework (Jønch-Clausen, 2004). IWRM is a systems approach to water management and has been conceptualized as a set of guiding principles for water management since the 1990's. "It is the most widely used process for policy-driven water management and it is difficult to overstate the extent to which IWRM has become the norm or even, one might say, the orthodoxy in water resources management" (Jeffrey & Gearey, 2006). The goals of IWRM are "administered and operationalized by The Global Water Partnership (GWP) that have been adopted as a set of guiding principles for water management by its 2,550 partnership organizations operating in 161 countries, including 80 country partnerships and 13 regional water partnerships" (GWP, 1996) Chief among the goals of GWP are the reduction of undernourishment and poverty. This study asks if IWRM has achieved significant and positive outcomes of poverty reduction and undernourishment. The level of analysis of this study is the group of Least Developed Countries (LDCs). Population growth is projected to triple, passing from 1.2 billion to 4.2 billion, by 2100 and projections indicate that 80% of that growth will take place within the LDC communities. By 2050 agricultural production will need to increase by 70% globally, and by 100% in LDCs to keep up with population growth. This paper provides evidence that key to reducing poverty and undernourishment is improving agricultural productivity. Over the past decade agricultural production in LDCs has increased by 2%. The salient question becomes, is IWRM an effective tool for improving agricultural production? METHOD This study will broaden the evaluation of IWRM as a policy tool and management system by subjecting it to robust quantitative analysis based on survey data of the Japanese Water Forum of 2006 (Japan Water Forum, 2006). The purpose of the survey was to assign scores to countries describing their progress toward IWRM by quantitatively assessing an indicator evaluation survey and the degree to which populations enjoy improved access to sanitation and improved access to water. The two hypotheses under consideration are: H1=IWRM is an effective tool for significantly and positively improving access to sanitation and water H2=IWRM is not an effective tool for significantly improving agricultural production and therefore ineffective at reducing poverty and undernourishment in LDCs A regression analysis estimates the effectiveness of IWRM as a tool to satisfy both hypotheses. The median scores developed by the Japanese Water Forum study represent the Dependent (Y) variable in the study. The Independent variable data are provided by World Bank data. The table of variables is below: Regression Table Variable Regression ID Description Source Unit IWRM Penetration (Y) Iwrm_pen Mean of IWRM scores Japan Water Forum Study, 2006 Score from 1-100 Crop Production Index (2004-2006=100) CPI Net per capita crop production FAO, 2010 Index value Human Development Index HDI Aggregate of life expectancy, education and GNI UNDP Index value Access to Improved Sanitation acc_san Any improvement in treatment or disposal of human feces World Bank Percent of population Access to Improved Water acc_water Any improvement in delivery or treatment of water World Bank Percent of Population Gross National Income gni_cap Formerly GNP/capita World Bank US Dollars Percent Undernourished pct_und Percent of population with <3000 kcal/day World Bank Percent of Population Regression Table Results The Japanese Water Forum study estimates the degree to which IWRM has been institutionalized by measuring the attainment of MDGs manifested in the water sector; improved access to sanitation and improved access to clean water. This study illustrates that there is a significant and positive relationship between the increase in IWRM penetration and the improvements in access to water and improved sanitation. The regression table and the scatter graphs illustrate the positive relationship. When the poverty index (GNI/capita), Undernourishment, and Crop Production Index are regressed it becomes evident that the penetration of IWRM does not result in a positive and significant outcome in these variables. There is a positive, insignificant relationship between IWRM and Undernourishment, and a negative and significant relationship between IWRM and poverty reduction (GNI); and a negative and significant relationship between IWRM and the Crop Production Index. Both hypotheses are satisfied. Conclusion This study will illustrate the positive and significant relationship between improvements in agricultural production and the reduction of poverty and reduction in undernourishment. Further, this study will quantify the requirements for improved agricultural production in order to satisfy the current needs of populations in LDCs 1. Biswas, A. (2008 йил March). Integrated Water Resources Management: Is it Working? Water Resources Development, 24(1), 5-22. doi:0.1080/07900620701871718 2. GWP. (1996). Global Water Partnership. Retrieved July 1, 2011, from http://www.gwp.org/en/About-GWP/ 3. Japan Water Forum. (2006). Report on the Survey of Progress towards IWRM. Survey Report. From http://www.waterforum.jp/en/resources/pages/recommendations.php 4. Jeffrey, P., & Gearey, M. (2006). Integrated water resources management: lost on the road from ambition to realisation. Water Science & Technology, 53(1), 1-8. doi:10.2166/wst.2006.001 5. Jønch-Clausen, T. (2004). Integrated Water Resource Management and Water Efficiency Plans by 2005: Why, What and How. Stockholm: Global Water Partnership.
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