Emmanuel Sachikumba (chingola), Emmanuel Sachikumba
The University of Zambia
Zambia has good climate with favourable rainfall pattern; this provides sufficient recharge for the surface and ground water resources. In spite of the sufficient surface and ground water resources, accessibility to water at household levels is problematic both in quality and quantity. The study examined water accessibility as well as water quality at household level. The research looked at the sources of water for the households and considered the complications of accessibility to water and the available opportunities therein. The investigation involved fifty households and the data was collected by the use of questionnaires (to assess accessibility) and laboratory tests (for ascertaining water quality). In addition to this, government departments such as the health, agriculture, forestry and education as well as the municipal council were interviewed on the topic under study. The study was descriptive in nature where clustered sampling procedures using simple random methods were utilised to select the households which were to participate in the study. The key findings were that; accessibility to water household levels is still a challenge in the settlement as most of the point sources (shallow wells, the stream and the river) were found to be contaminated. In addition to this, it was found that there was no direct relationship between the economic performance of a household and the accessibility to water. The study also observed that there were opportunities among the people in the settlement as they were increasingly getting into the education system and adult literacy was being encouraged in the settlement. Furthermore, the settlement has groundwater resources which indicate that there can be sufficient water provision for the settlers. ADF, Zambia National Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Program: Appraisal Report Water And Sanitation Department, Owas, July, 2006. Pp 1-15. Bain, R.E, S., et al., 2012. Accounting for Water Quality in Monitoring Access to Safe Drinking-Water as part of the Millennium Development Goals: Lessons from Five Countries. Bull: WHO. Pp, 112-116. Bruns, B.R. and R. Meinzen-Dick, 2005, Frameworks for Water Rights: An Overview of International Options. Washington: International Food Policy Research Institute. Carrillo-Rivera, J.J., 2008, Â“Ground water Flow System Definition and its potential in Transboundary and Climate Change IssuesÂ”, in Managing Shared Aquifer Resources in Africa. Third international conference, Tripoli 25-27 May, UNESCO. DFID, Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Evidence paper, May 2013. London: DFID. Pp 64-65. GRZ/MOF, 2010. Six National Development Plan 2011-2015 Â‘Sustained Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction. Lusaka, Government printers. GWP, 2003, Poverty Reduction and Integrated Water Resources Management. TEC Background Papers No.8, Stockholm: Global Water Partnership. Hope, R.A., 2006, Â“Evaluating Water Policy Scenarios against the Priorities of Rural PoorÂ’Â’, World Development, Vol.34, No.1, Pp 167-179. Mwanga, J. R., B. B. Jensen, P. Magnussen, and J. Aagaard-Hansen (2008). Â“School Children as Health Change Agents in Magu, Tanzania: A Feasibility Study.Â” Health Promotion International 23 (1), Pp 16-23. Nyambe I. A. and Feilberg, M., 2009, Â‘Water in a Changing WorldÂ’ as quoted in the MEWD, Zambia National Water Resources Report. Lusaka: Mulungushi House. Pp, 9-12. UNICEF/WHO, 2012, Progress on drinking water and sanitation, 2012 update. New York, UNICEF (http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/publications/2012/jmp_report/en/, accessed 13 March 2012). UNICEF, 2006, Progress for Children: A Report Card on Water and Sanitation No. 5. New York, UNICEF, p.6 UNFPA-Zambia, 2010 Census Results Shared Newsletter UNFPA Zambia Update January - March, 2013: http://countryoffice.unfpa.org/zambia/ UNESCO, 2000. Mining: ZambiaÂ’s Economic Lifeblood. Geneva: UNESCO. UN-Habitat, 2006. State of the WorldÂ’s Cities. Nairobi, UN-Habitat. Pp 105-107. World Bank, 2005, ZambiaÂ’s Poverty and Vulnerability Assessment. Washington, DC: World Bank WHO, 2007, Combating Waterborne Diseases at the Household Level. Geneva: WHO press. Pp 7-12. WHO, 2010. Facts and Figures: Water, Sanitation and Hygiene links to Health. Geneva, WHO Press. WHO, 2011. Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality. 4th ed. Geneva, WHO Press. Pp 3-11. WHO, 2012. UN-Water Global Analysis and Assessment of Sanitation and Drinking-Water: The challenge of extending and sustaining services. Geneva, WHO Press. ZWP-MEWD, 2008. Integrated Water Resources Management and Water Efficiency (IWRM/WE) Implementation Plan. Volume 1: Main Report (2007-2030). Lusaka, Zambia.