Jayaraju Nadimikeri (Kadapa, India), Jayaraju Nadimikeri
Yogi Vemana University, India
Water is an important natural resource of earth and plays a vital role in our life. Surface water and groundwater are the major sources of water. On a global scale there is now abundant evidence that anthropogenic activities have polluted the environment with pollutants from the poles to the tropics and from the mountains to the depths of the oceans. Pollution due to increase in population, industrialization and other anthropological activities is effecting the physical, chemical and biological parameters of water in the coast. In this study, water quality status and quantification of different water quality parameters in the study area has been monitored using Remote Sensing and GIS techniques. Remote Sensing techniques depend on the ability to measure these changes in the spectral signature backscattered from water and relate these measured changes by empirical or analytical models to a water quality parameter. The optimal wavelength used to measure a water quality parameter is dependent on the substance being measured its concentration and the sensor characteristics. The water quality information maps of the entire study area have been prepared using GIS spatial interpolation technique for all the parameters. The results obtained in this study and the spatial database established in GIS will be helpful for monitoring and managing water quality in the study area. The water quality parameters included Total Solids (TS), Dissolved Solids (DS), pH, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Chloride and Total Hardness (TH) in this study. Mapping was done using Satellite data of Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS) P6 LISS III. Radiance value of each band of IRS LISS III data has been calculated and observed radiance value on those sample points of each band along with band ratios and principal components were compared with in situ measurements of water quality parameters. These appropriate band combinations and principal components data of different periods were used in estimation of water quality parameters. The all these water quality parameters were significantly correlated with LISS III radiance data. Subsequently, multiple linear regression equations models were used in estimation of water quality parameters and preparation of digital cartographic maps depicting the water quality over the entire study area for different periods. This paper gives an insight on assessment of water quality in and around Tummalapalle Uranium deposit which is one of the largest Uranium deposits in the world. However, due to mining activity the chemical quality of underground water in this area is getting altered. A total of 19 samples are collected in and around mining area and the chemical parameters are analyzed by using Inductively Coupled Plasma --Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) which is widely accepted as a powerful technique for chemical analysis. The chemical element values from ICP-MS are compared with the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). Correlation coefficients were calculated to establish inter -- element relationship and T- Test is conducted to find out significant correlation between the elements. It is noticed that some chemical concentrations are present beyond the permissible limits of BIS and inferred that the ground water in and around the Tummalapalle area is not that safe for the domestic purposes. Anjan Chaki, R.K. Purohit, R. Mamallan; Asian Nuclear Prospects (2010) a report on Low grade uranium deposits of India Â– a bane or boon J.Energy Procedia 00-2010-00-000 Elsevier. BIS (1991) Indian standard drinking water specifications,(IS:10500). NewDelhi: BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS Cathy Vakil and Dr. Linda Harvey 2009 Human Health Implications of Uranium Mining and Nuclear Power Generation. Dutta, Ratnajyoti; Krittivas Mukherjee (July 19, 2011). "Uranium find in India could be world's largest-report". New Delhi: reuters.. Retrieved 19 July 2011. Handa, B.K.(1994) Ground water contamination in India, Proc. Regional Workshop on Environmental aspect of Ground water Development, Kurukshetra, pp-I to I-33. http://aglasem.com/resources/reports/pdf/Ground%20Water%20POLLUTION.pdf Paul .R. Houser (2003) A Hand book of Weather, Climate And Water; Atmospheric Chemistry, Hydrology, and Social Impacts, ISBN 0-471-21489-2 John Wiley &sons, Inc. Rasheed, M. A., Srinivasa Rao, P. L., Anuradha, B., Lakshmi, M., and Dayal, A. M. (2011). Assessment of Groundwater Quality using ICP-MS in the eastern region of Adilabad District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Journal of Environmental Protection and Ecology, 12(in press). Rai ,A.K.,Zakaulla, S., Jeyagopal, A.V., Vasudeva Rao. M., Nagabhushana, J.C. and Varadaraju, H.N. (2002) Uranium mineralisation in the southwestern part of the Cuddapah Basin, Andhra Pradesh. Exploration and Research for Atomic Minerals, Vol. 14, pp.79-94. Sarangi, A.K, and Krishnamurthy.P (2007) A report on Uranium Metallogeny With Special Reference to Indian Deposit. Sunderarajan.P (July 19, 2011) The Hindu. Retrieved Aug 3, 2011 Tummalapalle in A.P. could have one of world's largest uranium reserves". Vanadana parth., Murthy N.N., and Praveen Raj Saxena., (2011). Assessment of heavy metal contamination in soil around hazardous waste disposal sites in Hyderabad city (India): natural and anthropogenic implications. Journal of Environmental Research and Management vol.2(2). Pp027-034, August 2011.