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Surface Water Contamination: The Effect In Rural Communities Of Nigeria

Congress: 2015
Author(s): Olomieja Ojo, Hakeem Bello, Timothy Ajayi

Ogun State Teaching Service Commission, Oke-Mosan, Abeokuta, Ogun State Institute of Technology, Igbesa



Keyword(s): Sub-theme 2: Surface water and groundwater,
Abstract

Key word: surface water, civilization, global, river, Ado -- Odo/ Ota Local Government Area Introduction and Objectives: Ogun state is one of the first communities to taste western civilization and education in Nigeria. Most of the rural communities in the state lack access to portable water supply; they rely on rivers, streams, wells, and ponds for their daily water needs. The global health community ceaselessly talks about low life expectancy in Nigeria as ever rising population of poor vulnerable attacks from simple and preventable diseases. Agricultural wastes such as pesticides, fungicides and fertilizer, human and animal faeces, seepage from pit, Latrines and septic tanks, refuse dump, industrial, domestic and municipal waste released into water bodies are often responsible for surface water contamination which is a source of drinking water to the Community. Contaminated water is associated with health risks; it leads to the spread of diseases such as dysentery, cholera, typhoid, diarrhea etc. Between January and August 2013, over 20 deaths and more than 200 hospitalizations were reported in the news in parts of Nigeria arising from cholera outbreaks. Water pollution has continued to create negative impacts on health and economic development. It is sad that this disease of the poor recently ravaged some parts of Ogun State, Nigeria, killing 5, out of the 115 cases. The aim of this paper is to identify some of the diseases prevalent in the agbara and Igbesa Rivers, foster new culture of public sanitation and personal hygiene and the potential of the state to turn its sewage waste into energy. Methodology and approaches: From six different locations, the samples were collected at the up -- stream and the downstream sections of the two rivers and their physico-- chemical parameters such as PH, total dissolved solid (TDS), Dissolved Oxygen (D.O), electrical conductivity (E.C), total hardness (TH), alkalinity, chloride (Cl-), Nitrate (NO3) were analysed. Glass electrode was used in measuring the PH, conductivity and TDS, while titrimetric method was used in analyzing the total hardness, total alkalinity and chloride. Nitrate analysis was carried out using spectrophotometer. Coli form and Salmonella/ Shigella test was also performed using Bacteriological analysis. Mac Conkey Agar was used without salt for the detection of enterobacteriae and coli gram positive. Coli forms: Total coliforms were isolated and enumerated by the pour plate technique on MacConkey Agar incubated at 370C. Bright pink colonies on incubated MacConkey plates were Recognized as Escherichia, and confirmed by indole test and mannitol fermentation as recommended by Harrigan and McCance other members of the family Enterobacteriacae, arising as a heterogeneous micro-flora on MacConkey Agar were characterized and differentiated by biochemical properties as Citrobacter and Enterobacter. Analysis, Result, Conclusions and Recommendation The analysis revealed that water sample PH at Igbesa River and Agbara River ranges from 6.25 to 6.30 at Igbesa River and 5.25 to 5.50 at Agbara River This is less than 6.5 required for portable water standard of National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC), standard organization of Nigeria (SON), United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), European Union (EU), and world health organization (WHO) The lower PH value is as a result of contamination by acidic substance Total hardness ranges from 35 -- 40 mg/ L in agbara, 39 -- 44 mg/ L in igbesa The study revealed that an average of 100,000 litres of industrial waste into the environment goes into the rivers directly or indirectly. Result The study revealed that presence of E. coli bacteria is an indication that the water is contaminated by fecal waste, hence, not fit for drinking. 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