Timothy Ajayi, Godwin Chinemerem1, Ayodele Olomieja 2
Safe Water & Sanitation Embassy1, Ogun State Institute of Technology Igbesa, Nigeria2
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES
Lagos is the commercial nerve centre of Nigeria experiencing rapid urbanisation. It is one of the mega cities of the world with an estimated population of 17.5 million. The Lagos Lagoon which is a notable water body in Lagos state has been a sewage disposal site for the past fifty years and the quantity of sewage wastes disposed daily into the Lagoon has greatly increased due to rapid population growth. The Lagoon serves as the major source of sea foods in Lagos and also confers beauty to the city. Like some other highly populated and sewage rich cities, Lagos state is yet to utilise her abundant sewage resources in meeting her energy need instead of polluting her Lagoon. The aim of this paper is to elucidate the effects of disposing sewage waste into the Lagos Lagoon and the potential of the state generated sewage waste in meeting her formidable energy challenge.
METHODOLOGY AND APPROACHES
Water samples from ten different locations of the Lagos Lagoon were analysed for the presence of pathogenic organisms using Sedimentation, Microscopy and Culture techniques. The Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and pH of the water samples were tested with the aid of BOD test apparatus and pH meter respectively. The daily average numbers of sewage tankers offloaded in all the sewage disposal sites were recorded and the average daily volume of sewage wastes disposed calculated. Analysis, Results, Conclusions and Recommendation The Analysis revealed the presence of pathogenic organisms like Ascaris lumbricoides, Giardia intestinalis, Hookworms, Escherichia coli, Salmonella species and Kleibsiella species which. Also, a BOD level of 95-225mg/l at 20oC for five days and a pH of 7.9-8.5 were recorded. This study revealed that an average of 1.1000,000 litres of sewage wastes are disposed daily by tankers in Lagos of which 70% goes into the Lagos Lagoon directly or indirectly.
This study revealed that dumping sewage wastes into the Lagos Lagoon makes the water ecologically unfit for aquatic faunas and floras and also reduce the aesthetic appearance of the environment. It also exposes those that come in contact with it to pathogenic infections. Previous Studies have shown that 1kg of dry faecal sludge has a calorific value of 17.3 MJ, this implies that the daily 1.1,000,000 litres of Faecal sludge disposed in Lagos can meet the state's energy demand.
The Productive use of Faecal Sludge is strongly recommended to sanitise the Lagos Lagoon and meet the high rate of energy demand of the state.
1. Barnes D (1995), Consequences of Energy Policies for the Urban Poor, FPD Energy Note No 7, The World Bank, Washington DC. November 1995.
2. Barnett A (2001), Looking at household energy provision in a new way: The Sustainable Livelihoods approach, Boiling Point 46, pp30-32.
3. .Dasgupta N (1999), Energy Efficiency and Poverty Alleviation, DFID Energy Research Newsletter, Issue8, May 1999.
4. Doig A (undated) Energy Provision to the Urban Poor, Summary DFID KaR Research Project R7182.
5. ESMAP (1999) Household Energy Strategies for Urban India; the case of Hyderabad. Report 214/99, World Bank, Washington, June 1999
6. Future Energy Solutions et al (2002) Energy, Poverty and Sustainable Urban Livelihoods. DFID KaR R7661.
7. Kalumiana O (2002), Energy Services for rthe Urban Poor: The Zambian Perspective. Proceedings of a National Policy Seminar: ZimbabweÂ’s Policies on Urban Energy for the Poor. Mapako M and Dube I (eds), AFREPREN Occasional Paper No 20.
8. Mapako M and Dube I (eds) (2002) Proceedings of a National Policy Seminar: ZimbabweÂ’s Policies on Urban Energy for the Poor. AFREPREN Occasional Paper N o 20.
9. Watkiss P (undated), Urban Energy Use: Guidance on Reducing Environmental Impacts, DFID KaR Project R7369. Project Report Summary.
10. Akpata, T.V.I and Ekundayo, J.A. (1978): Faecal Pollution of the Lagos Lagoon,Nigerian Journal of Science, 12, 44-51.
11. Bell, R.G. and Russell, C (2002): Environmental Policy for Developing Countries, Issues inScience and Technology, Spring 2002.
12. Benka-Coker, M.O and Bafor, B.E (1999): Waste Management and Water Pollution, eds. J.A.Pickford, Proceedings of the 25th WEDC Conference, pp. 12-16, Addis Ababa,Ethiopia, Loughborough University, United Kingdom.
13. Benka-Coker, M.O and Ojior, O.O (1995): Effect of Feacal sludge Wastes on theWater Quality of Lagos Lagoon, Nigeria, Bioresource Technology, 52, pp. 5-12
14. Brockerhoff (1995): Child Mortality in East Africa: The Impact of Preventive Health Care,Working Paper 76, New York Population Council.
15. Chokor, B.A (1993): Government Policy and Environmental Protection in Developing World, Environmental Management, Volume 17, Number 1, pp. 15-30.
16. Coker, A.O, Olugasa, B.O and Adeyemi, A.O (2001):Human wastewater Quality in SouthWestern Nigeria, Proceedings of the 27th WEDC Conference, pp. 329-331, Lusaka,Zambia, Loughborough University, United Kingdom.
17. De Silva, N.P., Karunatileka, R and Thiemann, W. (1988): Study of some Physico Chemical Properties of Nilwala River Water in Southern Sri Lanka with specialreference to Effluents resulting from Anthropogenic Activities, J. Environ. Sci.Health. Part A, A23, 381Â—398.
18. Egborge, A.B.M. and Benka-Coker, J. (1986): Water Quality Index: Application in the WarriRiver, Nigeria, Environ. Poll. Ser. B., 12, 27-40.
19. Esrey, S.A, Potash, J.B, Roberts, L and Shiff, C (1991): Effects of Improved Water Supply and Sanitation on Ascariasis, Diarrhea, Dracunculaisis, Hookworm Infection, Schistosomiasis and Trachoma, World Health Organisation Study Report for Africa, South, Southeast and Central Asia, Geneva, Switzerland.
20. FEPA (1991): National Environmental Protection (Effluent Limitation) Regulations (S.1.8), FEPA, FGPL, Lagos,Nigeria.
21. FGN (1988): Federal Environmental Protection Agency Decree, Federal Ministry of Information and Culture, Lagos, Nigeria.
22. FMH (1986): National Health Policy Report, Federal Ministry of Health, Nigeria. Hoddinott, J. (1997): Water, Health and Income: A Review, FCND/IFPRI Discussion Paper 25,February Edition.
23. Law, A.T (1980): Sewage Pollution in Lagos Rivers and its Estuary, Pertanika, 9, pp. 13Â–19.
24. Okoronkwo, N and Odeyemi, O (1985): Effects of a Sewage Lagoon Effluent on theWater Quality of the receiving Stream, Environmental Pollution Series, A, 37, pp. 71Â–86.
25. Ola, C.S. (1984): Town and Country Planning and Environmental Laws in Nigeria, University Press, Ibadan, Nigeria.
26. Oluwande, P.A, Sridhar, M.K.C, Bammeke, A.O and Okubadejo, A.O (1983): Pollution levels insome Nigerian Rivers, Water Research, 17 (9), pp. 957Â–963.